Sputum examination pdf

sputum examination.pdf - 1 SPUTUM EXAMINATION Notes on ..

  1. If sputum is described as purulent or mucopurulent, or there is a high white cell, polymorph or pus cell count ++ or +++, this suggests that a bacterial infection is more likely to be present. If squamous epithelial cells are present ++ or +++, this is likely to be saliva rather than sputum and is not a good sample
  2. ation.pdf from MED 12 at Kabarak University. 1 SPUTUM EXAMINATION Notes on sputum exa
  3. ation as a routine procedure and does not get first hand knowledge of the appearances of these various types of disease exudates, the contents of this monograph will quickly prove to him that he has neglected a major portion of his part of the clinical exa

The Sputum: Its Examination and Clinical Significance

  1. ation refers to the laboratory exa
  2. ation of three sputum specimens among smear positive cases First specimen Second specimen Third specimen 85.8% 11.9% 3.1% CDC. Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2010
  3. ation of sputum 1. .A sputum culture is test to be detect and identify bacteria or fungi that infect the lungs or breathing passages & cause infections. Sputum is a thick fluid produced in the lungs and in the adjacent airways. 2. BACTERIA Gram Positive Streptococcus pneumoniae Strephylococcus Aureus Streptococcus pyogenes Gram Negative.
  4. Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi). In medicine, sputum samples are usually used for naked eye exam, microbiological investigations of respiratory infections, and cytological investigations of respiratory systems
  5. ation of Sputum is commonly done as sputum is desired in cases of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (caused by M. tuberculosis), Bronchiectasis, Bacterial pneumonia (caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae), Pulmonary Mycotic infection, and lung abscesses, in case of pneumonia complications and in a.

Sputum is a thick substance produced by the lungs as a result of some infection or lung-related disorder. This substance cause coughing, breathing problems and often produces bacteria. The Sputum Examination is a pain-free test conducted to analyse the bacteria or fungi in the lungs that are causing sputum production Sputum examination is an important aid in the diagnosis of pneumonia: color, amount, consistency, and odor. Mucopurulent sputum is commonly found in bacterial pneumonia or bronchitis. Scanty, watery sputum is often noted in atypical pneumonia; rusty sputum is seen in pneumococcal pneumonia; and currant-jelly or dark-red sputum suggests. obtained from sputum cytology in the cases in which there had been a delay in diagnosis.7 So sputum examination for malignant cells remained as the sheet anchor of diagnosis for over 60 years and it continues to be used because of the ease of sample acquisition.8However, this technique is not being used in man A higher risk of infection exists when collecting sputum specimens from patients. Doctors and nurses working in TB wards and clinics where aerosols are generated have a much higher risk of becoming infected with TB. personal safety When performed correctly sputum examination will not place laboratory technicians at increased risk of developing TB Bacteriological examination of sputum is the reliable method for diagnosing infectious TB in Nepal. Moreover, people with sputum smear positive TB is much more infectious than people with sputum smear negative TB. Sputum microscopy is not only reliable; it is also very simple and cost effective

Examination of Sputum - Bioscienc

This fact sheet contains step-by-step directions for giving a sample of sputum. On this page: Why is a sputum test necessary? How to collect a sputum sample. Download PDF version formatted for print: Instructions for Collecting Sputum for TB (PDF) Amharic (PDF) Arabic (PDF) Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian (PDF) French (PDF) Karen (PDF G. M. TebbuttandD.J. Coleman type 3 antiserum) as described by Kronvall (1973). For each test about 1 ml of homogenised sputum was boiled for 10 minutes and either allowed to stand at roomtemperature for 5 minutes or centri- fuged at 1100gfor 5 minutes. A2-pl loopful ofthe supernatant fluid was mixed with a loopful of antibody-coated staphylococci on a microscope slide, the slide was rocked. Sputum analysis includes: Macroscopic examination (determination of sputum character, its quantity, color, transparency, odor, consistency, presence of impurities and various inclusions). Microscopic examination (determination of cellular and other sputum elements, as well as the study of microbial flora in native and stained smears) •Laboratory examination of specimens of urine, stool, sputum, blood, and wound drainage provides important information about body functioning and contributes to the assessment of health status. •Laboratory test can facilitate the diagnosis of health care problems, provide information about the stag

Conventional sputum cytology can be used for the detection of lung cancer, but has shown a low yield in prospective screening trials. This review focuses on the technical aspects relevant to the outcome of DNA and image analysis in sputum. Published articles are discussed in the light of the technical background. Recent developments in DNA analysis and nuclear image analysis show a clear. The nature of phlegm. Depending on the consistency, color, transparency, odor and other physical signs revealed by macroscopic examination, four main types of sputum are distinguished: Mucous sputum is colorless, viscous, odorless. It occurs in the initial stages of inflammation or when its activity subsides of the physical exam depends on the patient's symptoms and site of disease (e.g., evaluation of lymph node size, medication side effects). Taking a medical history at each follow-up visit is important to guide the exam, as patients may not reveal certain symptoms or events unless asked. 6.Laboratorytests.Previous sputum and othe

the examination of three initial sputum smears to aid in the decision to discontinue AII for patients with a high suspicion of pulmonary TB. 7 However, Xpert MTB/RIF ® should not be used as an alternative for the three negative smear SPUTUM . Sputum is material from the mucous lining of the bronchial tubes and trachea. Its consistency varies from a thin, watery fluid to thick, purulent material, and it has a Ph of 6.6 to 7.1 . PURPOSE OF SPUTUM EXAMINATION . An examination of sputum is made chiefly to reveal the presence of bacteria 2. Physical examination 3. Test for . M. tuberculosis. infection 4. Chest radiograph 5. Bacteriologic examination of clinical specimens. 1. Medical History. When conducting a medical history, the clinician should ask if any symptoms of TB disease are . present; if so, for how long, and if there has been known exposure to a person with. Sputum cytology refers to the examination of sputum (mucus) under a microscope to look for abnormal or cancerous cells. Sputum, or phlegm, is the fluid that is secreted by cells in the lower respiratory tract such as the bronchi and the trachea.It differs from saliva, in that it contains cells that line the respiratory passages A sputum culture is a sample of the gooey substance that often comes up from your chest when you have an infection in your lungs or airways. It is mostly made up of white blood cells that fight.

Assessment of the Usefulness of Sputum Culture for

Two consecutive sputum examinations requested by a junior doctor reveal malignant cells. Full text Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page Sputum. Sputum contains bronchial epithelial cells from the central airways and theoretically may provide a means to detect a central malignancy or changes reflecting field cancerization, which suggest a high risk that the lungs may harbor a malignancy. From: IASLC Thoracic Oncology (Second Edition), 2018. Download as PDF Examination of sputum COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT OF SPUTUM Sputum for microbiological investigation is collected and transported as follows: 1- Give the patient a clean, dry, wide-necked, leak-proof container, and request him or her to cough deeply to produce a sputum specimen storage and transport of sputum specimens and for the examination of sputum smears by direct microscopy. It was meant to address the needs of health care workers in low income, high prevalence countries which represent the bulk of the global tuberculosis caseload. More than twenty years have elapsed since its first publication, and the guid

Examination of sputum - SlideShar

53% after examination of two samples, 60% after examination of three, 68% after examination of four, and 710% after examination of five samples. It is apparent that the proportion of positive results rose steadily until four sputum samples had been examined. The addition of the fifth sample added only 3% to our recovery rate. It is perhaps. SPUTUM EXAMINATION, ROUTINE (Light Microscopy, Giemsa stain) CELLS / HPF Result Epithelial cells Neutrophils Lymphocytes Eosinophils Monocytes Macrophages Red blood cells Degenerated cells . Created Date: 12/29/2016 3:59:18 PM. by Sputum Examination* Report of a Case ROMEO A. VIDONE, M.D.,** LEE HOFFMAN M.D., PETER B. HUKILL, M.D., KENNETH A. NESBITT, M.D. AND FRANCIS J. McMAHON, M.D. Chelsea, Massachusetts I N 1958 ROSEN, CASTLEMAN AND UE­ bowl first described a new disease which they called pulmonary alveolar pro­ teinosis and reported their experience with 27 cases 2.2 Sputum Notes: Sputum is the most common specimen submitted for the detection and isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sputum comes from a deep productive cough and should contain minimal amounts of oral and nasal material. Sputum can be submitted for several purposes: to establish an initial diagnosis of tuberculosis, t

National Tuberculosis Programme TB 05 - Annexure VI THE LABORATORY FOR Cytologic examination of specimens obtained from the re-spiratory tract is a primary and frequently the initial diagnos-tic technique performed in patients with respiratory symp- Sputum cytology is noninvasive and is the most easily obtainable of the tech-niques available. Sputum Cytolog Introduction: The examination of three sputum samples per suspect has been severely criticized from a public health viewpoint and several recent trials have documented the relative inefficiency of the third smear and the necessity for confirmation of a positive smear has also been contested J. clin. Path. (1955), 8, 114. CYTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SPUTUM IN RELATION TO ITS MACROSCOPIC PURULENCE BY G. A. RAWLINS Fromthe Institute ofDiseases ofthe Chest, BromptonHospital, London (RECEIVED FOR PUBLICATION SEPTEMBER 30, 1954) Investigations into the bacteriology of chronic bronchitis (May, 1953a and b) have shown that purulent sputum usually contains one or mor View Sputum Examination PPTs online, safely and virus-free! Many are downloadable. Learn new and interesting things. Get ideas for your own presentations. Share yours for free

Sputum culture Diagnostic yield 20 to 79* 20 to 79* influenza Rapid DFA (sputum, BAL fluid) 22 to 75 90 Legionella pneumophila DFA (sputum, BAL fluid) 22 to 75 90 PCR (sputum, BAL fluid) 83 to 100. scopic sputum examination-used in Tai-wan the following facts are observed: When microfilm was used in case-find-ing, 99.3 per cent of the prospective cx-aminees came for the examination. When sputum examination was employed, only 72.3 per cent of the prospective examinees sent in their specimens. It evidently re-flected that the general public. microscopic examination of sputum and its culture. The lower respiratory tract secretion (sputum) is usually contaminated with normal flora of the oropharynx or saliva (upper respiratory tract secretions). So, a large number of different species overgrow in sputum culture thus preventing the.

Form and sputum container Laboratory Serial No.: When the patient comes for diag-nosis, all of his 3 sputum samples are given one Labora-tory Serial No. When the same patient comes for sputum examination at the end of 2 months, both follow-up samples are given a single new Laboratory Serial No. When the patient comes for the next follow-up sputum Sputum is a thick and cloudy mucus produced by the lungs and also in other parts of the body and is a normal process. The substance can get infected by bacteria resulting in infections and resulting in a variety of complications. A sputum test involves the collection and analysis of a sample of the sputum in order to determine the nature of the. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide scourge, infecting one-third of the world's population. In India, more than 40% of population is infected with TB bacilli with many TB cases remaining undetected due to lack of inexpensive, sensitive and robust diagnostic tests. Diagnosis of pulmonary TB relies upon sputum smear microscopy. The standard two-day method contributes to high patient drop-outs

Exfoliative cytology

earlier, repeated examination of many samples of sputum is warranted. Ir the case of pleural effusion, sputa should also always be examined and, ofcourse, the sameapplies to anysubsequent pleural fluids if further samples become available. It is difficult to state precisely what percentag EXAMINATION OF ACID-FAST BACILLI IN SPUTUM USING MODIFIED LIGHT MICROSCOPE WITH HOMEMADE LIGHT EMITTING DIODE ADDITIONAL units.it, 2007. Aryo Tedjo. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. READ PAPER 1.7 Sputum Smear Results Notes: Some more on smear results for a diagnosis of TB. In 2010, 43% of pulmonary TB cases in the United States were sputum smear positive. The second bullet shows data from a publication reviewing research of incremental diagnostic yield of three sputum specimens among smear positive TB cases. The researc Sputum examination Sputum should be examined macroscopically, microscopically after proper staining, and bacteriologically. Total quantity of sputum in 24 hours, color, consistency and other characteristics like odor and presence of blood are of great value in diagnosis. Presence of fungi in mycotic infections, asbestos bodies in asbestosis and.

you) and symptoms and physical exam findings by a doctor or nurse, such as new or increased , feeling like you cannot get a big enough breath, or wheezing, feeling like you cannot get a big enough breath, or rapid shallow breathing. There are no tests of the blood, sputum, or chest x-rays that have been found to diagnose an exacerbation ABSTRACT: A study was made of 20 patients (average age, 74) admitted to the Internal Medicine Service from the emergency ward because of acute infections of the lower respiratory tract, to determine the degree of correlation between the findings upon immediate Gram-stain examination of the sputum and the subsequent findings upon examination of the sputum culture We compared examination of unstained and Gram-stained smears as methods of evaluating sputum quality. Of 100 slides examined, 96 (96%) were graded identically. Each discrepancy between methods was near the cutoff for specimen acceptability. We concluded that examination of unstained smears can provide an accurate, cost-effective sputum screening method Sputum is produced by cells lining the respiratory tract. Although production is minimal in the healthy state, disease states can increase the amount or change the character of sputum. Examination of sputum may aid with diagnosing and treating various conditions. In many cases, suctioning is indicated to collect sputum from a young child A complete screening medical examination for tuberculosis disease consists of a medical history, physical examination, IGRA when required, chest x-ray when required, and sputum smears and culture testing for . Mycobacterium tuberculosis (when required, Figures 1a.,b. and 2a.,b.)

sputum examination - SlideShar

Examination of Sputum Specimen in Laboratory

Sputum Examination Test - Test Results, Normal Range, Cost

  1. ation is the basis of diagnosis of tuberculosis and quality control for the correct diagno- sis of tuberculosis is necessary. This study was a method survey and performed with 930 smears with the aim to compare the confidence rate of sputum smear exa
  2. Sputum is a type of thick mucus that is produced by the lungs when they are diseased or damaged. It is a substance known as phlegm, and it can be an indicator of many respiratory infections. This.
  3. To complete a sputum Gram's stain, your doctor will need to a collect a sample of your sputum and send it to a laboratory for testing. Sputum is a mixture of saliva and mucus that you cough up.
  4. Sputum is mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways (the trachea and bronchi).In medicine, sputum samples are usually used for naked eye exam, microbiological investigations of respiratory infections and cytological investigations of respiratory systems. It is critical that the patient not give a specimen that includes any mucoid material from the interior of the nose
  5. Individuals with cytological atypia in sputum may be at increased risk for lung cancer. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the association between lung cancer incidence and cytological atypia in sputum samples collected prospectively from an ongoing cohort of adults at high risk for lung cancer. Cohort members had a smoking history of ≥30 pack-years and chronic obstructive pulmonary.
  6. ation should include rhinoscopy to detect polyps and secretions, and chest auscultation. A baseline sputum culture may help guide antibiotic therapy, although the sputum may contain only normal upper airway flora [2] In cases of diffuse bronchiectasis, a sweat chloride test should be included to rule out CF
  7. ar Sputum ExamiNAtion By Dr.Ajay Chavan. 04/12/09 1 Objective Production of Sputum . Collection of sample.. 04/12/09 Exa

A limitation of sputum examination is that all the sputum- positive cases in the community cannot be diagnosed when only one sample of sputum is examined from each person eligible. Barton (1958) reported the addition of 10 % positives through examination of a second specimen. Such additions were also observed in survey Sputum specimens will be collected in the early morning if possible. 4. A hot drink or breathing deeply over a steam vessel (i.e. pan of boiling water) may help raise sputum. 5. A specimen of 1-2 teaspoons in volume is adequate. The container should not be more than ½ full. Following collection, the green top will be place Microscopic examination of sputum smears has been the mainstay of diagnosis in DOTS (Directly Obser ved Treatment Short course) programme in India. Despite of DOTS strategy for early diagnosis and improved case detection, half of the active TB cases are found to be negative by sputum smear examination [2] identify one additional case of sputum smear-positive TB on a third serial smear examination is in excess of the consensus in both countries. In Moldova, even the second smear was above the critical value. DISCUSSION This study demonstrated that the efficiency of a third serial sputum smear examination was very poor in both Moldova and Uganda

Candida albicans microbiology - microscopic examination

What to bring to the TB sputum test 1. Valid passport and 2 copies of the passport 2. Original ID and 2 copies of the ID card 3. The letter from referral hospital Service fees Age group Fees in THB Diagnostic sputum tests for Tuberculosis, series of 3 specimens (smear, culture, identification, DST 23, 74%) showed significantly increased sputum ANCAs compared with patients with eosinophilic asthma (P=0.002) and healthy controls (P,0.0001), irrespectiveoftheirserum ANCAstatus. In addition, 16of17(94%) of sputum ANCA1 patients had clinical manifestations of severe asthma compared with 3 of 6 (50%) in the sputum ANCA2 subset (P=0.04. Citation: Shepherd E (2017) Specimen collection 4: procedure for obtaining a sputum specimen.Nursing Times [online]; 113: 10, 49-51.. Author: Eileen Shepherd is clinical editor at Nursing Times. This article has been double-blind peer reviewed; Scroll down to read the article or download a print-friendly PDF here Click here to see other articles in this serie

Sputum Examination - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Through Sputum smear examination by Fluorescent microscopy, routine HIV Testing by Rapid Test methods and CD 4 count by Flowcytometry method are re started on Antituberculous treatment and remaining 35 (54%) were retroviral positive only. Prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection is 46% among the sample size in this study.. Sputum AFB smear positive NAAT was not ordered Your plan? Low Uncertain/Unclear No Rx Wait for Final ID Initiate Rx If no response (or worsening) High Consider Rx if benefits>risks 1. Risk of progression 2. Risk of transmission 3. Risk of adverse effects Re-assess for other diagnoses when ID is still pending 1. Repeat or additional Imaging (e.g. of sputum. Examination of sputum aids in the diagnosis and treatment of many conditions such as bronchitis, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis (TB), pneumonia, and pulmonary abscess, or lung cancer.3 In many cases, suctioning is indicated to collect sputum from a patient who cannot spontaneously produce a sample for laboratory analysis

Applicants who have medical history, physical exam, or chest x-ray findings suggestive of pulmonary TB, but have negative AFB sputum smears and cultures and are not diagnosed with TB, or can wait to have TB treatment started after U.S. entry. Class B1 TB, Pulmonary: Completed Treatmen Patient Instructions for Collecting a Sputum Sample Print new copies from Intranet Last Approved Date: 12/1/2015 Legacy Laboratory Client Services (503) 413-1234 Toll Free (877) 270-5566 Page 1 of 1 Your physician has asked you to provide a sputum specimen. Important tests will be done on your specimen

Interpreting the Sputum Gram Stain Report | Semantic Scholar

Sputum sample collection involves the collection of expectorated secretions from a patient's lower respiratory tract for the purpose of isolating microorganisms. This guide provides an overview of collecting a sputum sample in an OSCE setting. Download the sputum sample collection PDF OSCE checklist, or use our interactive OSCE checklist Sputum smear examination is the basis of diagnosis of tuberculosis and quality control for the correct diagno- sis of tuberculosis is necessary. This study was a method survey and performed with 930 smears with the aim to compare the confidence rate of sputum smear examination reported by one laboratory technician with the findings reported by two technicians in a tuberculosis screening program microscopic examination KOH mount culture: inoculate 0.5 ml to each culture media which contain antibiotic to inhibit bacteria flora in sputum e.g. IMA & BHI with chloramphenicol + cycloheximide 1. Sputum

Instructions for Collecting Sputum for TB (Tuberculosis

PARASITOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SOME READY TO EAT FRUITS SOLD AT OYE EMENE ENUGU STATE NIGERIA. Among horticultural crops, fruits are of great importance for an adequate and balanced human diet. In certain part of the world, fruits are the major dietary staple which includes collection and examination of exfoliated cells such as vaginal scrapes, sputum, urine, body fluids etc. Collection of cells by brushing, scraping or abrasive techniques is usually employed to confirm or exclude malignancy. Fibreoptic endoscopes and other procedures can be used for collecting samples directly from the internal organs A Sputum Analysis test is one of the most non-invasive test methods currently used to analyze your sputum and determine the causes for your respiratory disorder. It can also help identify the causative factors and thereby enable your physician to prescribe a more effective course of treatment. Your physician would recommend that you take this. e) Sputum examination. Key: c Ref: Bronchial Asthma (Page 673) Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. 12. A forty year old man presents with cold intolerance and weight gain. Examination reveals goiter. The most likely finding on central nervous system examination is: a) Ataxia. b) Delayed relaxation of ankle jerk. c) Hypotonia


Sputum examination Competently about health on iLiv

ABSTRACT: A study was made of 20 patients (average age, 74) admitted to the Internal Medicine Service from the emergency ward because of acute infections of the lower respiratory tract, to determine the degree of correlation between the findings upon immediate Gram-stain examination of the sputum and the subsequent findings upon examination of the sputum culture Examination &Interpretation of the Gram Stained Smear instance, mouth bacteria is sputum or vaginal flora in poorly collected urine. Knowledge on the normal microbial flora in various anatomical sites may be helpful. Beware of artifacts. Bits of irregularly shaped Gram-positive material or precipitated stain are easy t Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination page 2 of 7 6. Adoptive-acquired immunity may be the result of: Correct a. transfer of bone marrow from one individual to another. b. immunization with a vaccine. c. exposure to an individual who has an infectious disease sputum smear examination with bronchial washings and post-bronchoscopy sputum smear examination. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) for a period of October 2009-September 2011 at Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Narketpally, Nalgonda This treatment outcome occurs when a 3-sputum-smear examination has only one positive result out of three smear examinations. Ethambutol Isoniazid . LGU MDR - TB MHC MHO MT NGO NTP Passive Case Finding PHN PHO PTB PZA RAD RHU RHM RFP SM Smear Positive Smear Negative Sputum Microscopy for Diagnosi

Sputum examination for early detection of lung cancer

Useful sputum culture results rely heavily on good sample collection. If examination of a Gram stain of the sample reveals that it contains a significant number of normal cells that line the mouth (squamous epithelial cells), then the sample is not generally considered adequate for culture and a re-collection of the sample may be required Diagnostic Yield of Serial Sputum Smear Microscopy Examination at Different Institutional Settings Daniel Melese Desalegn 1-3* 1Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2Addis Ababa Public Health Research and Emergency Management Core Process, Addis Ababa City Administration Health Bureau, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 3College of Health Sciences, School of Clinical Laboratory. Purpose: This paper aimed to test whether induced sputum samples acquired from human volunteers could be used to isolate and culture airway macrophages for in vitro exposures. This was assessed in terms of the culturing success rate, culture purity, viability and responsiveness of cultured cells. Materials and methods: The isolation and culturing procedure was performed over three days This material provides sputum collection tips for healthcare workers to be aware of before, during, and after collection

Macroscopic examination of sputum Competently about

Background: Sputum smear microscopy is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Poor quality of sputum might result in missing the diagnosis. In the present study, we aimed at assessing the microscopic quality of sputum with reference to the number of pus cells and squamous epithelial cells observed on Gram's stained smears as an indirect marker Protocol of sputum mycological examination consensually designed during MucoFong (PHRC 06/1902) program Full size image Mycological analysis After incubation, digested sputa (50-100 µL) underwent direct examination and were plated onto six semi-selective culture media (10 µL of digested sample per plate)

Screening Flowchart: Figure 1 | Immigrant and Refugee

Only 13 of 38 hospital laboratories surveyed include a Gram stain routinely in microbiological sputum examination. In a prospective three-hospital study, 60% of over 1,200 sputum specimens consisted predominantly of saliva, as judged by cell composition Sputum Examination (valid within 3 months from date of examination) or Chest X-ray Any recognized laboratory (valid within 6 months from date of examination) Note: All results with abnormal laboratory findings shall be referred to City Clinic for appropriate treatment sputum culture in the same patient. The clinical follow-up period was defined as the interval between the time of first sputum examination and the time of last hospital visit by the same patient. Chest radiography and/or chest computed tomography findings, including bronchiectasis, cavitation, consolidation, and nodules/masses, were recorded