Congenital hypothyroidism guidelines Sri Lanka

Congenital Hypothyroidism SLC

Guidelines recommended by the Sri Lanka College of Paediatricians, November 2014 Based on the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology - Consensus Guidelines on Screening, Diagnosis and Management of Congenital Hypothyroidism (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014; 99(2):363-84. Early detection and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) prevents neuro-developmental disability and optimizes. Primary hypothyroidism results from under secretion of thyroid hormone and secondary hypothyroidism is caused by lack of TSH production from the pituitary. The most common cause for hypothyroidism in Sri Lanka is autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis). Guidelines for management of hypothyroidism Presentation and evaluatio Revised guidelines for implementation of Well Woman Services: Newborn Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism: English: NATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR MATERNAL CARE V III: Sri Lanka code for promotion, protection, and support of breast feeding and marketing of designated products - Colleges Cost-Effective Analysis of the Congenital Hypothyroidism Screening Program in Sri Lanka The guidelines published by Sri Lanka College of Pediatricians recommended follow-up tests on serum TSH/fT4 once per 2 weeks up to 1 month, once per 2 months up to 2 years, and then annually

The Sri Lanka College of Endocrinolog ists makes no warranty, express or implied, regarding the Guidelines and specifically excludes hypothyroidism and isolated hypothyroxinaemia during pregnancy is 0.5%, 3.5% and 2.1% respectively in the west (8). Estimated incidence of overt thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy Congenital Thyroid agenesis. Newborn Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism: English 2014: Levels of Neonatal Care for the Specialist Hospitals in Srilanka . English: සිංහල: தமிழ்: 2014: Guidelines_for_screening_of_Retinopathy_Of_Prematurity (Feb.2014) Newborn care in Sri Lanka Keywords: congenital hypothyroidism, guidelines, thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis, central hypothyroidism, Indicators of newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Sri Lanka: program challenges and way forward. BMC Health Serv Res 14:385. [PMC free article] [Google Scholar

The Endocrine Society of Sri Lanka's CLINICAL GUIDELINE

  1. Protocols and Guidelines. SLCP Guidelines on Management of COVID 19; Standard Treatment Protocols - Newborn; Standard Treatment Protocols - Paediatrics; Guidelines in Paediatrics. Congenital Hypothyroidism; Guidelines in Neonatology; The Journal. About the Journal; Archives; The Sri Lanka College of Paediatricians, is the professional.
  2. Congenital Hypothyroidism - early assessment and management [2018] Saudi Arabia. Journal of Clinical Neonatology. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening, diagnosis, management, and outcome [2017] Sri Lanka. BMC Health Services Research. Indicators of newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Sri Lanka: program challenges and way forward.
  3. Associated factors of congenital heart disease among children in a rural health care setting in Sri Lanka. W. A. A. D. De Silva, I. R. Ragunathan, R. M. C. L. Gunarathne. PDF (EN) 04 Jun 2021. 50 (2):203-208. The effect of consultancy on phone after hospital discharge on self-efficacy of mothers of children with congenital heart disease: A.

Guidelines - Family Health Burea

Cost-Effective Analysis of the Congenital Hypothyroidism

M. Hettiarachchi and S. Amarasena, Indicators of newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Sri Lanka: program challenges and way forward, BMC Health Services Research, vol. 14, article 385, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar; Malaysian Paediatric Protocol, 3rd edition, 2013 18. Lucas G. Guidelines on Management of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka J Child Health. 2015;44:75-6. 19. Desai MP, Sharma R, Riaz I, Sudhanshu S, Parikh R, Bhatia V. Newborn screening guidelines for congenital hypothyroidism in India: Recommendations of the Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology (ISPAE. As the country's leading private sector maternity care service provider and pioneer in Women & Childcare, Ninewells Hospital becomes the first private sector healthcare provider to introduce a Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) testing facility to detect Congenital Hypothyroidism among newborn babies in Sri Lanka

Thyroid Disorders - Sri Lanka Journal of Diabetes

Newborn screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Southern Province, Rathnapura and Kalutara Districts: Sinhala: Tamil: English: No Amendments: 2013-02-07: 02-37/2013: Guidelines on maintenance of office of Public Health Midwife: Sinhala: Tamil: English: No Amendments: 2013-02-05: 02-35/201 Guidelines on model maternal, Child health & family planning National Family Programme Sri Lanka-Review. Newborn Care. Newborn screening_congenital hypothyroidism in Southern Province. Neonatal Transport service - Western Province. Developed by Think Up Themes Ltd. Powered by Wordpress.. GUIDELINES TO HELP CANDIDATES TO PREPARE FOR THE ERPM common clinical situations prevalent in Sri Lanka. Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, Addisons disease, Other endocrine disorders • SLE related presentations and complications, Cerebral malaria and relate Congenital Hypothyroidism: A 2020-2021 Consensus Guidelines Update—An ENDO-European Reference Network Initiative Endorsed by the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and the European Society for Endocrinology. 1 Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of.

Intra natal and Newborn Care Unit - Family Health Burea

Sri Lanka J Child Health. 2015;44:75-6. Article Google Scholar 19. Desai MP, Sharma R, Riaz I, Sudhanshu S, Parikh R, Bhatia V. Newborn screening guidelines for congenital hypothyroidism in India: Recommendations of the Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology (ISPAE) - Part I: Screening and Confirmation of Diagnosis. Indian. Most newborns with a serious congenital disorder who survive face a lifetime of severe disability. 2,3. An estimated 94% of newborns with 1 or more congenital disorders are born in low- and middle-income countries, placing an additional severe burden on families, communities, and national health care systems. 2, In 1995, the Government of Sri Lanka launched USI Program as the mainstay of iodine deficiency control and achieved a satisfactory coverage after the initiation of this program. Iodine sufficiency in a population is defined as median UIC of 100 μg/L or more in nonpregnant women and children and 150 μg/L or more in pregnant women. [1 Since the year 2000, screening for congenital hypothyroidism has been initiated in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan . At that stage, there were no screening activities reported from Nepal, Cambodia, Laos and the Pacific Island nations

Congenital Hypothyroidism: A 2020-2021 Consensus

  1. Ceylon Medical Journal. 54(1): 29-30 3.Manjula Hettiarachchi (2009) Setting up a regional network to screen newborns for congenital hypothyroidism in Southern province in Sri Lanka. Galle Medical.
  2. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism - pilot project experience in Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the 12th Asia Pacific Congress of Paediatrics and 2nd Asia Pacific Congress of Paediatrics Nursing in Conjunction with 10th Annual Congress of Sri Lanka College of Paediatricians Vol 1, Issue 1 12-15th March 2007 Sri Lanka: 200
  3. Developmental Medicine and child Neurology, American Academy for Cerebral Palsy . San Diego USA, September 2014. Sumanasena SP, Wanigasinghe J , Muhandiram E, Arambepola C. Development al outcomes within the first year of diagnosis a descriptive study of children diagnosed with infantile spasms (SP53)
  4. Congenital hypothyroidism is the commonest preventable cause of mental retardation. The worldwide incidence is 1: 3000-4000 live births and the estimated incidence in India is 1:2500-2800 live births [1, 2]. More than 95% of new born infants with congenital hypothyroidism have a few, if any clinical manifestations. In view o
  5. In the 2000s, with limited funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, there has been screening programme development around detection of congenital hypothyroidism in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. Palau has recently contracted with the Philippine newborn screening programme

PGIM. The endocrine system plays a major role in the growth and development of a child. Endocrine disorders with long lasting effects on the physical, psychological and intellectual development such as congenital hypothyroidism and disorders of sex development present very early in life and continue through to adulthood Background: Pediatric discharge planning is a complex process, and that nurses need lengthy preparations. Role confusion among nurses will disrupt the smooth planning of the discharge. In Sri Lanka, although there is a possibility of reducing health costs through effective discharge planning led by pediatric nurses, it is questionable whether Sri Lankan nurses have clarified their role in this.

Is a 22 gene panel that includes assessment of non-coding variants. Is ideal for patients with a clinical suspicion of congenital hypothyroidism or thyroid hormone resistance. * The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party Hettiarachchi M, Amarasena S. Indicators of newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Sri Lanka: program challenges and way forward. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014; 14: 385 105. Dorreh F, Chaijan PY, Javaheri J, Zeinalzadeh AH. Epidemiology of congenital hypothyroidism in Markazi Province, Iran ← Previous post Congenital Hypothyroidism Guidelines Pdf. Next post → Congenital Hypothyroidism Guidelines Sri Lanka. Search for: More Inspiration. If You Think You Get , Then This Might Change Your Mind. The 10 Best Resources For. The Essential Laws of Explained

Paediatric Guidelines SLC

  1. Congenital Hypothyroidism. Thyroid Research and Practice. 2017 Jan 1;14(1):8. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, June 2021 (Accepted for publication) ORAL PRESENTATIONS 1. Accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count, guidelines for India (DDH care pathway)- one of the representatives from NNF, Indi
  2. More disorders were added to the panel, such as congenital hypothyroidism (incidence 1 in 2,200) in 1976, congenital toxoplasmosis (1 in 27,800) in 1986, hemoglobinopathies (1 in 2,900) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (1 in 19,200) in 1990, biotinidase deficiency (1 in 42,000) in 1992, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (1 in.
  3. da Yasaratne Senior Lecturer Academic qualifications: MBBS (University of Peradeniaya- 2004) MD (Medicine) - University of Colombo 2010 MRCP (UK) 2014 Post Graduate Certificate in Biostatistics & Research Methodology - Global Institute of Medicine, India 2012 2015 Level I competency in thoracic ultrasound and pleural procedures - Royal College of Radiologists, UK 2014 Higher Diploma.
  4. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism in government hospitals in Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Sri Lanka. 2007;12: 133-4. 5. Dutta R. ICMR to conduct first nationwide newborn screening for genetic disorders. Express Health Care Management; 1st -15th September 2005. 6
  5. Abstract. Introduction: Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder which could be either congenital or acquired where the thyroid gland is producing insufficient amount of thyroid hormones to meet the metabolic demand. Thyroid dysgenesis accounts for eighty five percentage of congenital hypothyroidism. Thyroid dysgenesis can be either agenesis, hypoplasia, or ectopic tissue
  6. Guidelines for the use of surfactant in Sri Lanka more. Publication Name: Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health. Research Interests: Sri Lanka Public health systems and services research, and 2 more Retrospective Studies and Congenital Hypothyroidism. Download (.pdf) • A neonate with quadruple.

Neonatal thyroid disorders : Guidelines, reviews

Assessment and management: Primary hypothyroidism in women. By Cynthia S. Watson, DNP, FNP-BC, and Janis Guilbeau, DNP, FNP-BC. Download Article as PDF. February 12, 2021. Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder affecting nearly 2 in 100 women. Primary hypothyroidism can be diagnosed and effectively managed by primary care providers Congenital hypothyroidism. This is a condition in which the baby is born with too little thyroid hormone. Hypothyroidism is also quite common and has almost doubled in the past 20 years to approximately 1 in 2,000 births in the U.S. Untreated low thyroid hormone levels can lead to mental developmental problems and poor growth

Sri Lanka Journal of Child Healt

A One Stop Screening Protocol for Haemoglobinopathy Traits and Iron Deficiency in Sri Lanka ORIGINAL RESEARCH published 09 August 2019 doi 10 3389/fmolb 2019 00066 Frontiers in Molecula Some 60%-to-70% of congenital hereditary hearing impairnment have a non-syndromic origin. The prevalence of non-syndromic hearing loss is 3-4:10,000 neonates and increases with age. In many populations, mutations in GJB2 are the most prevalent explaining up to 50% of all non-syndromic hearing losses on data from Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and the Philippines. Although there is extensive pediatric literature that emphasizes that the first clinical evidence in permanent sporadic congenital hypothyroidism is the slowing of growth, this has not been extrapolated to populations with endemic goiter. Thus, a conclusio AEN Advances in Endocrinology 2314-7903 2356-668X Hindawi Publishing Corporation 10.1155/2015/387684 387684 Research Article Congenital Hypothyroidism: An Audit and Study of Different Cord Blood Screening TSH Values in a Tertiary Medical Centre in Malaysia Wong Sze Lyn Jeanne 1 Jalaludin Muhammad Yazid 2 Zaini Azriyanti Anuar 2 Samingan.

Australium MvM drops. Games Details: Team Fortress 2: 10 Effective Weapon Loadouts. Games Details: TF2 Custom Weapon Maker. The Kukri Wrangler (KUKri - Kuk means cock. Hypothyroidism in children is more common than you think and we break down the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for the same Guidelines on maintenance of office of Public Health Midwife: Sinhala: Tamil: English: No Amendments: 2013-02-07: 02-39/2013: Newborn screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Southern Province, Rathnapura and Kalutara Districts: Sinhala: Tamil: English: No Amendments: 2013-02-08: 02-38/2013: Appointing to the Post of Director General of. Settimg up a regional network to screen newborns for congenital hypothyroidism in Southern province in Sri Lanka Manjula Hettiarachchi PDF (EN) 08 Oct 2009 Diabetic care provided at a Diabetes Clinic at the largest Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern Sri Lanka: an audit Congenital dyskeratosis: Zinsser-Cole-Engmann syndrome; a rare cause. The Sri Lanka Medical Association decided to publish these guidelines to promote appropriate cost-effective prescribing. We have obtained the assistance of experts in each speciality to write the different chapters. We expect that these guidelines would be useful to all grade

Abstract: Hypothyroidism is a common condition in Sri Lanka as it is world-wide. Most of the people were getting treatment for hypothyroidism in Jaffna. By having good knowledge on usage of thyroxin medicine, can be. Prevalence of vitamin deficiencies in Sri Lanka. The 2006 national survey of vitamin A status in Sri Lanka [ 18] recognized VAD as a significant public health problem, with a prevalence of 29.6% among children aged 1-5 years and 2.3% of children in the entire sample having severe deficiency (serum retinol < 10 μg/L) Sir Nicholas Attygalle Oration. 2019 - Not awarded. 2018 - Biomarkers in breast cancer; broadening the horizons. Prof. Lakmini Mudduwa, Professor of Pathology, Dept. of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna. 2017- The Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry - Ten years of supporting Sri Lankan clinical research Congenital hyperinsulinism is a rarely reported feature of the syndrome with the genetic mechanism for the dysregulated insulin secretion being unknown. Methods: We studied the clinical and genetic characteristics of 12 individuals with chromosome 9p deletions who had a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia Subsequently from 2010 he contributed to set up the new-born screening program for congenital hypothyroidism to prevent mental retardation of children with thyroxine deficiency from birth. The laboratory at the Nuclear Medicine Unit of Faculty of Medicine Karapitiya is now screening one half of all new-borns i.e. 180,000 born in Sri Lanka

Maternal exposure to air pollution is related to fetal dysplasia. However, the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in the offspring is largely unknown. We conducted a national database based study in China to explore the association between these two parameters. The incidence of CH was collected from October 1, 2014 to October 1. Thyroid Anatomy - View presentation slides online. Ppt thyroid anatom This is the latest syllabus for ERPM published in 2005 after the ERPM exam model was revised. It contains. List of topics to be covered for each subject (Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Pediatrics, Community Medicine and Forensic Medicine) List of clinical procedures needed for ERPM. Recommended textbooks for ERPM by the SLMC

Guidelines Publication Schedule. ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines and scientific statements are prepared by task forces which are groups of cardiologists that meet upon request to deal with particular problems in cardiology. Published in 2020. Non-St-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes. Atrial Fibrillation. Adult Congenital Heart Disease Congenital Hypothyroidism. Maternal Iodine Status and the Thyroid Function of Pregnant Mothers and Their Neonates in Jaffna District of Sri Lanka. Hipotiroidismo 2012. Ata Pregnancy 2017. Thyroid. manejo hipertoriodeo. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008 n=389 2011 Guidelines:. 125.7 Congenital Muscular Dystrophies. 125.8 Conclusions. References. List of relevant Relevant Web pages. Further Reading. Chapter 126. Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies. 126.1 Introduction. 126.2 Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies. 126.3 Diseases Phenotypes. 126.4 Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy—Evidence-Based Medical Guidelines

It is frequently reported that the CHD incidence is either constant or increasing worldwide [5,6]. There is no nationwide survey on congenital heart disease of neonate children in Bangladesh, however, different studies suggest that the incidence of CHD in Bangladesh is around 18/1000, 15% in India, and 10% in Sri Lanka [6-8] Endocrinology GUIDELINES Package. Add Subscription $101.99/year. Digital. What's Inside. Clinical Practice Guidelines + Codes ( CPG + Codes, for short) are the most credible resources in the market, combining quick-reference versions of official clinical guidelines with ICD-10-CM and CPT® codes. Each title in this digital series is based on a. Resource person of the workshop organised by the College of Paediatricians for the formulation of guidelines for the management of urinary tract infections in children . Workshop on Neonatal Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism 24th January 2006 held at Faculty of Treasurer of the Sri Lanka Society of Paediatric Nephrology since 2003.

SLCP - Sri Lanka College of Paediatrician

The Ceylon Medical Journal (CMJ) is published by the Sri Lanka Medical Association, one of the oldest medical associations in the Asian region. The Ceylon Medical Journal is the oldest surviving medical journal in Australasia. It was started in 1887 as the Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the British Medical Association UpToDate, the evidence-based clinical decision support resource from Wolters Kluwer, is trusted at the point of care by clinicians worldwide Approved By. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Digital Subscription. $92.99. Add to Cart. Digital. What's Inside. The digital subscription version of the Endocrinology GUIDELINES Package contains all the same great information found in the physical pocket guide, and can be accessed on mobile devices and online: Save over 20% off the price. Blood tests can measure total T4, free T4, total T3, or free T3. The total T4 test has been used for many years, but it can be affected by the amount of protein available in the blood to bind to the hormone. Free T4 is not affected by protein levels and is the active form of thyroxine. The free T4 test is thought by many to be a more accurate.

Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a congenital mesodermal anomaly characterized by the triad of varicose veins, cutaneous capillary malformations and hypertrophy of bone and/or soft tissue[].Acanthocytosis refers to the transformation of an erythrocyte's normal biconcave disc shape into a cell with several irregularly shaped external projections distributed unevenly on the membrane surface[] Allen A L et al (1993) Congenital Hypothyroidism Dysmaturity and Skeletal Lesions in Western Canadian Foals. In: Proc 39th Ann Conven Am Assoc Eq Pract. San Antonio, TX. pp 207-208. Dybdal N O et al (1990) Endocrine Disorders. In: Large Animal Internal Medicine. Ed: B Smith. C V Mosby, USA. pp 1296-1302 OGTT is performed in pregnant women by measuring the plasma glucose in fasting or non-fasting after 2-hour ingesting 75 grams of glucose (Monohydrate Dextrose Anhydrous). For diagnosing gestational diabetes (GDM) Indian Guidelines (DIPSI Test) are simple and can be done easily in low resource setting where large number of pregnant women visit for ANC check-up Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, slowness in movements and thoughts, muscular aches and an increased sensitivity to cold. Between 20 and 50% of women with the condition will experience irregular menstrual cycles and/or hyperprolactinaemia. Hypothyroidism can also predispose a female to PCOS-like symptoms

Indicators of newborn screening for congenital

Markers of hyperandrogenism in South Asians with polycystic ovary syndrome. Sri Lanka Journal of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism 2014;4:3-8. View Article Google Scholar 17. Balasooriya S, Fernando MA. Seasonal variation of menarche in Sri Lanka. Ceylon Med J 1988;33:105-109. pmid:326610 Price. Sub Total: $0.00. To purchase one or more articles (CE included): Select your profession to display the correct list of articles, then click the green button to the left of the title (s) in the list below. This will add the selected article (s) to your cart. Articles - $6.95 and up. Select Profession Another plant that holds the promise of effectively curing hypothyroidism is Bael, also known as Aegle marmelos. Many localities also call it as Bilva, Beli fruit, stone apple or wood apple, among others. It is commonly found in many South and Southeast Asian countries, most notably in southern India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and the Philippines Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive. The community prevalence of PCOS studied by random selection using Rotterdam criteria depicts the observed rates to be 6.3% in Sri Lanka, [ 46] 2% in south China [ 52] and 5% in Thailand [ 53] in.

The Study on Thyroid Status among Newborns in Jaffna

The patient had been previously diagnosed with hypothyroidism, a low thyroid condition characterized by weight gain, fatigue, and depression-like symptoms. The number one cause of hypothyroidism in the United States is an autoimmune condition called Hashimoto's syndrome (or Hashimoto's thyroiditis) The questionnaire was successfully applied in Japan (113 responses), India (144 responses), China (150 responses) and Thailand (267 responses). Although the questionnaire was also offered to associations in Indonesia, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Singapore and the Philippines, responses were not received during the course of the phase III project In the NHS, newborn screening is free at the point of care and covers 9 rare diseases. Babies are tested at days 5-7 with the Guthrie heel prick test which tests for serious disorders such as phenylketonuria (PKU), cystic fibrosis, and congenital hypothyroidism. It involves taking a blood spot sample with a small prick is taken from the baby. Oligosyndactly is a congenital bony abnormality and can manifest either as an isolated malformation or as a component of a syndromic diagnosis. However, development of hypothyroidism in children with this peculiar bony deformity has rarely been described in the medical literature, with the exception of Cenani-Lenz Syndactyly syndrome Sri Lanka Journal of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2019;9:18-25. Sinha U, Sinharay K, Saha S, et al. Thyroid disorders in polycystic ovarian syndrome subjects: A tertiary hospital based cross-sectional study from Eastern India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2013;17:304-9. Yu Q, Wang JB

Neonatology : Guidelines, reviews, statements

Congenital hypothyroidism. About 1 in every 2,000 to 3,000 babies born in the UK has congenital hypothyroidism. Babies with congenital hypothyroidism don't have enough of the hormone thyroxine. Without thyroxine, babies don't grow properly and can develop learning disabilities Zoology is the aspect of science that deals with the study of the animals' evolution, habitat and behavior. This science explains the world of animals, their evolution to the present forms over time, their habitats and food habits, and their co-existence with each other. Humans appreciate life and nature, and animals form an integral form of our natural surroundings

Establishment of a Simulation Training Programme in Sri

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