Bacterial black spot of mango PDF

(PDF) Genomic Variability of the Xanthomonas Pathovar

Mango bacterial black spot is a very serious disease of mango. In infected orchards, chemical control is difficult and on some farms in Australia, for example, 90% of the fruit has had to be thrown away because the spots on the fruit make them unacceptable to the market The bacterial black spot disease of mango is widespread throughout most of the mango growing areas and the incidence varied from cultivar to cultivar. The perusal data from Table No. 1, revealed that in general disease incidence was more in the year 2014 as compared to the year 2013. Bacterial black spot disease of mango characterized by a rapid expansion of necrotic lesions in buds and leaves and fruits. It is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. This pathogen usually produces leaf necrosis damage of dormant buds is the most destructive phase of the disease in growing areas Kolar and Chitradurga districts Initially, small, dark spots form and then they coalesce to form irregularly shaped, dark, dry lesions. The dead tissue often cracks and falls out. Symptoms of both anthracnose (left) and bacterial black spot (right) on mango leaves A mango panicle infected with anthracnose diseas Cause: Bacterial black spot is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. mangiferaeindicae (Gagnevin and Pruvost 2001, Ah-You et al. 2009). Background. South Florida has an estimated 1,351 acres of commercial mango production (Crane 2017). In addition, hundreds of thousands of mango trees are grown in home landscapes throughout central and south Florida (J. H. Crane, personal.

Table 1. M~or diseases of mango (those marked with an asterisk have been reported in Hawaii). Disease Fruit Diseases Anthracnose* Stem-end decay Bacterial black spot Rhizopus soft rot Soft brown rot Jelly seed* Flower And Leaf Disease Van Lelyveld, L. J. (1975a) — Bacterial black spot in mango ( Mangifera indica L.) fruit. Ascorbic acid and the hypersensitive reaction as a means of resistance. Agroplantae 7: 45-50. Google Scholar. (9) Van Lelyveld, L. J. (1975b) — Ascorbic acid content and enzyme activities during maturation of the mango fruit and their association. Containers of at least 175 x 150 x 450 mm (about 10 l) are recommended for use in mango nurseries. Cultivars Important characteristics include time of ripening, internal quality, external appearance, fruit size, resistance to bacterial black spot and other diseases, tree size and consistent yields. None of th Bacterial diseases; Bacterial black spot = bacterial canker Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae: Bacterial fruit rot Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum = Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Erwinia herbicola. Crown gall hi Agrobacterium tumefacien Bacterial black spot. This disease attacks mango leaves, twigs and fruit. Read the Agnote bacterial black spot of mangoes (2006) PDF (37.9 KB). Mango scab. This is a fungus that causes black spots on new fruit. In severe cases, numerous lesions can cause new shoots to defoliate

Mango bacterial canker, or bacterial black spot, is a major concern for the export market where high fruit quality is required. Mango dieback and stem-end rot are two of the most serious diseases affecting mango production and postharvest losses worldwide. Mango wilt is a serious disease that results in plant death Anthracnose, the most important mango disease, is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gleosporioides. Flower blight, fruit rot, and leaf spots are among the symptoms of this disease. Symptoms on the panicles (flower clusters) start as small black or dark-brown spots. These can enlarge, coalesce and kill the flowers (Fig. 1), greatly reducing yield

Mango bacterial leaf spot disease which is also known as mango canker, bacterial spot, bacterial canker, black spot, mango blight, bacterial black spot is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Mangiferaeindicae (Xcmi) (Gupta and Sharma, 2000) [7]. It is one of the most destructive bacterial disease of mango worldwide (Gagnevin an Bacterial black spot of mango caused by Xanthomonas campestris by.mangiferaeindicae was found to be essentially a wound pathogen of leaves under glasshouse conditions, with maximum infection occurring at a temperature regime of 22/26 o C (night/day). There were significant differences in leaf susceptibility among cultivars, cv. Sensation being less, and cv. Haden more susceptible than cvs Zill.

HS1369/HS1369: Bacterial Black Spot (BBS) of Mango in Florid

Bacterial black spot of mango SpringerLin

Such fungi and bacteria include Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium mangiferae, Oidium mangiferae, Verticillium alboatrum, Erwinia carotovora, and Xanthomonas campestris (Ploetz and Ploetz 2003). Mango bacterial black spot also called mango bacterial canker was observed in most mango cultivated countries and regions The genetic diversity of 138 strains of the Xanthomonas pathovar mangiferaeindicae, which were isolated from three different hosts (mango, ambarella, and pepper tree) in 14 different countries, was assessed with restriction fragment length polymorphism markers. An analysis of patterns obtained by hybridization with an hrp cluster probe from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae separated 11 of the. In June 2015, symptoms of what appeared to be bacterial canker (also known as bacterial black spot) were observed on mature fruits of mango, Mangifera indica, in the vicinity of Boynton Beach and Lake Worth, FL. Star-shaped lesions up to 2 cm in diameter erupte Bacterial black spot of mango caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae (Xcm) is one of the most important bacterial disease causing mango crops, in Karnataka. Mango is cultivated throughout the tropics as well as subtropical areas and is threatened by several destructive diseases (Pruvost et al., 2009). When the infectio INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW: BACTERIAL BLACK SPOT OF MANGO IN SOUTH AFRICA The mango (Mangifera indica L.) industry is the third largest subtropical industry in South Africa, with a gross value of R21 220 480, of which 24 464 tonnes were exported during the 1 990 - 1 991 season (Abstract of Agricultural Statistics, 1 991). Sinc

अनार की फसल के प्रमुख रोग तथा उनके नि‍दान के तरीके

List of mango diseases - Wikipedi

  1. e the disease incidence and severity in mango farms, assess the effect of the disease on yield/fruit quality confirm if the causal agent of the current outbreak of.
  2. twig dieback and bacterial black spot are some of tbe mam problems faced by mango producers world-wide (Prakash & Srivastava, 1987; Wolstenholme et al., 1995). Of tbe diseases, tbose caused , by fungi contribute the most to production and economic losses (Singh, 1960; Prakash & Srivastava, 1987; Johnson, 1992). Fungi generally affect mango production through disease development and Botryosphaeri
  3. g them unacceptable for market
early blight (Alternaria solani ) on garden tomato

Bacterial black blight of mango (Mangifera indica), is unrecognized in the classic growing areas of this fruit tree. The disease was first identified in Israel, which is located at the northern limit of the mango-growing zone, some 20 years ago. The causal agent was indentified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae been an issue. Bacterial black spot is a serious necrotic disease of mangoes which has been reported from most mango growing areas of the world, including India. The infected black rot spots in mango leaves which caused darkening of the vascular tissues near the gall were selected for pure culture isolation and further characterization

Pests and diseases - NT

The main reason for fruit splitting is infection by bacterial black spot. There is a hollow in the fruit. What is that? A hollow in the fruit is an occasional problem in Kensington Pride and some other varieties. The hollow develops at the top of the fruit where it is connected to the stem, and is known as stem-end cavity PDF View, search and navigate This PDF has been created specifically for on-screen display, e-mail, and internet use. SCREEN VIEW The page view of this electronic document has been automaticall Windbreaks are important for mango orchards as wind damages fruit and reduces its quality. Even minor wind damage predisposes leaves and fruit to infection by bacterial black spot. Use existing stands of timber where possible; otherwise plant windbreaks well before the orchard is established

Video: Mango Pathology and Diseases - Handbook of Mango Fruit

STEYN ET AL: MANGO/ BACT. BLACK SPOT 1401 Bacterial black spot of mangoes was first observed in South Africa by Doidge (3) who isolated and described the pathogen as Bacillus mangiferae n.sp. The bacterium, a yellow-pigmented, gram-negative and peritrichously flagellated rod, has since been reclassified as Erwinia mangiferae Doidge (l) On fruits, water-soaked, dark brown to black coloured lesions are observed which gradually developed into cankerous, raised or flat spots. These spots grow bigger usually up to 1 to 5 mm in diameter, which covers / almost the whole fruit. These spots often, burst extruding gummy substances containing highly contagious bacterial cells Four bacterial strains of Bacillus spp. which were antagonistic to the mango anthracnose pathogen were isolated and screened. Among them, TB09 and TB72 were identified by 16S rDNA sequence as Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively.In vitro, the anthracnose fungus showed 88.87% and 80.07% of mycelia growth inhibitions in presence of B. pumilus and B. thuringiensis. Genomic variability of the Xanthomonas pathovar mangiferaeindica, agent of mango bacterial black spot . By Lionel Gagnevin, J. Leach and Olivier Pruvost. Get PDF (377 KB) Abstract. The genetic diversity of 138 strains of the #Xanthomonas# pathovar mangiferaeindicae, which were isolated from three different hosts (mango, ambarella, and pepper. Bacterial Canker of Mango 39. Grey Leaf Spot of Mango C.O. Pestalotiopsis mangliferae a fungus, It is a fungal disease of minor status. Initially the symptoms appears on leaves, consisting of small brown spots with greyish white centre, which later turns to bigger spots

Factors affecting bacterial black spot of mangoes caused

and rots in mango trees (Ploetz, 2003; Freeman et al., 1999; Haggag and Abd El-Wahab, 2009). Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas sp. (causing apical necrosis and bacterial black spot respectively) are among the few known bacterial pathogens of mango International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science Aims: Mango bacterial black spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv.mangiferaeindicae, is a potentially severe disease in several tropical and subtropical areas.Data describing the life cycle of the pathogen are needed for improving integrated pest management strategies. Because of the important bacterial microflora associated with mango leaves, isolation of the pathogen is often difficult.

This is the first report of a X. arboricola pathovar on mango in China inducing a disease for which we propose the name of bacterial leaf spot to distinguish it form the bacterial black spot caused by Xcm. Further studies are needed for determining pathovar sta- tus of the strain Epiphytic bacteria on mango leaves from Reunion orchards were investigated for two years to select strains antagonistic to Xanthomonas campestris pv.manqiferaindicae (X. c. pv. mi) in vitro in order to develop a biological control.Less than 20% of the isolated strains were antagonistic against X. c. pv.mi in vitro.Most of the (70%) were identified either as Bacillus subtilis or B. Bacterial canker of mango (or bacterial black spot) caused by #Xanthomonas citri pv. Mangiferaeindicae# (2) is a disease of economic importance in tropical and subtropical producing areas. #X Mango fruits mature in 3-4 months from flowering, Fruit colour changes from dark green to light green on maturity. Harvesting should be started after few fruits drop, during morning hours. Individual fruits are clipped with 1.5 cm stalk using mango harvester. Harvested fruits are kept on gunny bags under shade Copper against bacterial black spot in mango. The black asperisporkum can appear white if hyperparasitized by fungi such as CephalosporiumRhinotrichum gossypinum and Verticillium. Ellis MB; Holiday P, For a complete description including images see www

Algal Leaf Spot Bacterial Black Spot Nematodes Mango Disorders Caused by Abiotic Factors Decline Internal Breakdown of Fruit Part 4: Pineapple World Production The Pineapple Plant Pineapple Diseases Pineapple Diseases Caused by Fungi Butt Rot, Black Rot, White Leaf Spot, Fruitlet Core Rot, Leathery Pocket, Interfruitlet Corking Fusariosi In the present study, variations in 20 isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. the . causal agent of bacterial leaf spot or canker of mango, collected from mango growing areas of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were analysed. These isolates varied in their ability to liquefy gelatin, reduce nitrateand utilize carbon sources in controlling bacterial black spot of mango (Manicom & Schoeman, 2001), therefore this treatment was evaluated for avocados in 2001/02. The experiment was carried out at West-falia Estate near Duiwelskloof in the Limpopo Province and seven 22 year old Fuerte trees were used for each treatment. Treatments were applied by standard high volume spray HpaG-Xcm, a novel harpin protein, was identified from Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, which causes bacterial black spot of mango. Here, we describe the predicted structure and functions. 2.3.Suppressive activities of native volatiles of Pseudomonas putida BP25 on postharvest anthracnose of mango. To test the suppressive effect of bacterial volatiles on anthracnose, the surface-disinfected (by sodium hypochlorite 1.0 %) mango fruit was fumigated by native-volatiles of Pseudomonas putida BP25 for 24 h and were challenged-inoculated with a conidial suspension of Colletotrichum.

Mango bacterial black spot (213) - apps

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv

  1. paragraph on the Enemies of the Mango Tree. The mango in Porto Rico seems almost entirely free from disease, or the attacks of insects. On the north side of the island the skin of the fruit is frequently disfigured by black spots, probably a fungus. Though in no way injuring the eating quality of the fruit, these detrac
  2. enterobacteria causing bacterial canker in mango in Costa Rica. Material and methods Fruits, branches, and trunks with symptoms previously described as reddish striations and rubbery exudates on the trunk while the fruits showed a black spot in the peduncular region and fruit internally necrosis near to the seed (Figur
  3. spot, black spot, mango blight, bacterial black spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae (Xcmi) [1]. The disease was first recorded as bacterial leaf spot from Poona by Patel et al.,[13], and from other parts of the country by Shekhawat and Patel [14] and Kishun an
  4. ent dark-brown to black decay spots (Figure 3). These may coalesc
  5. (e) Bacterial Canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv . mangiferaeindicae ): Canker is a serious disease in India. The disease causes fruit drop (10-70%), yield loss (10-85%) and storage rot (5-100%). Many commercial cultivars of mango including Langra, Dashehari, Arnrapali, Mallika and Totapuri are susceptible to this disease
  6. aeindicae (mango bacterial black spot) and X. citri pv. anacardii (cashew angular leaf spot). Brazilian pigmented strains of Xanthomonas from cashew trees with symptoms of Xanthomonas spot were not included in the reclassification studies conducted by Ah-You et al. and published in 2007 and 2009 (1,2). Moreover, monitoring cashew orchards i
  7. • Bacterial black spot • Fruit flies • Best production in dry areas with irrigation ZFor good floral initiation a dry period of 3-4 months desirable Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Adaptation ZBest soils • Deep ,well drained, fertile, loam, high OM • pH 6.0 to 7.0 ZTolerant of soils that ar

black rust and bacterial leaf spot disease are responsible of extensive damage.17 According to Sijaona et al.,18 powdery mildew can cause yield losses ranging from 70 to 100%. In Brazil, anthracnose infection has drastically reduced cashew production by up to 40% in 2000.19 Study conducted by Afouda et al.,20 highlighted four main disease phaseoli pv. manihotis (Xpm)[34]; and, the bacterial black spot of mango bacteria, X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae (Xcm)[2]. For the selected proteins, the secondary and spatial structure were predicted, and the ability on HR Liu et al. BMC Microbiology (2020) 20:344 Page 2 of 11.. Planting of mango orchard in north-south direction and 5-6 km away from the brick kilns reduce the incidence. 16. Internal Necrosis (Boron deficiency) Symptoms: First, water soaked grayish spots develop on the lower side of the fruit. Late, the spots enlarge and develop into dark brown necrotic area. The internal tissu Bacterial Black Spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. Mangiferaeindicae). Bacterial black spot is a rain related disease. There are differences in susceptibility among cultivars, Sensation being resistant, Tommy Atkins moderately so, and Haden, Kent and Zill very susceptible, especially where they hang late. No cultivars however, are immune Common pests and diseases on mango in Ghana Plant Doctor Training Mango thrips Scirtothrips mangiferae (©Scot Nelson, Flikr) • Thrips scrape the underside of the leaf, producing downwards curl and silvery sheen. • Leaves turn brown and if infesta˙on is severe may die. Bacterial black spot Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. mangiferaeindica

New media for the semiselective isolation and enumeration

Mango Bacterial Black Spot by Randy Ploetz Bacterial black spot (BBS) is a destructive leaf, stem and fruit disease in many mango-production areas of the world. In India, the disease is known as bacterial canker because of the cankers it causes on the stems of some cultivars. BBS can be the most important mango C. Bacterial black spot disease of mango: Causal organism is Xanthomonas campestris pv. Mangiferae indica. Symptoms: Mango leaves, stems and fruits are all susceptible to infection. On leaves it produce angular, water-soaked spots of 1-3 mm in diameter, which are delimited by the veins Mango (Mangifera indica) Attributes • Large number of cultivars • Diverse niche market (increasing) • Cold tolerance to 25-30°F Issues • Potential freeze - damage, death • Fruit disease issues • Anthracnose • Bacterial black spot • Off-shore competition 'Southern Blush Mango malformation disease. Anthracnose. Bacterial flower disease. Bacterial black spot. Apical bud necrosis. Powdery mildew. Stem end rot. Phytophthora fruit rot. Last updated: 17 Oct 2013 Pestalotia mangiferae Melanconiaceae Melanconiales Brown spot Tropical Leaf, fruit Weber G. 1973 Phytophthora palmivora Pythiaceae Peronosporales Canker In the warmer exception French,GuiaStem,fruit Kranz.J.1977 BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangifePseudomonadaceae Bacterial black spot Tropical, sub-tropical Fruit Bradbury 1986 Page 1 of

Genomic Variability of the Xanthomonas Pathovar

2017-19 ACIAR Mango Agribusiness Research Program. Project: Opportunities and strategies to improve biosecurity, market access and trade for selected mango markets . Study: Asia Pacific Biosecurity study. Project number: AGB/2016/008 . Date: 30 October 2019 . Prepared by: Peter Johnson, Griffith University . Rob Duthie, Kalan Author: A. Willis: Keywords: mango, bacterial black spot, Mangifera indica, Xanthomonas campestris pv.mangiferae indicae: DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2009.820.68: Abstract: Bacterial black spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv.mangiferae indicae is often responsible for excessive fruit loss in susceptible cultivars such as Keitt and Kent. Extensive spraying with copper oxychloride is the most. a mango orchard in East Naples. Since that time there has been Hurricane Irma, the increasing threat of 'Bacterial Black Spot' and disappointing harvests of some mango varieties. Clark will provide an update to his agricultural journey, including the decision to plant alternative subtropical fruits and the practical challenges t Copper sprays are used on mangoes to control bacterial black spot and in the case of copper hydroxide and copper sulphate these products are also approved to control anthracnose on leaf and fruit. I am sorry but there are no alternatives to copper that are registered for use on mangoes that give effective control

Ask IFAS: Mango Disease

  1. ed during.
  2. Bacterial speck of tomato Pseudomonas syringae pv. 3. 10. Black leg of potato Erwinia spp 11. Bacterial Wilt of brinjal Psedomonas solancearum 12. Angular leaf spot of pumpkin Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans 13. Bacterial Canker of mango Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae 14. Bacterial leaf blight: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae 15
  3. In the eye of a new threat for the Mango Industry In 2012 the Bacterial Black Spot (BBS) was detected as a new disease threatening the mango industry in Ghana. By 2015/2016 it has spread widely to mango farms in the country, with Kintampo being one of the most affected districts with 70% of cultivated acreage invaded
  4. Singh and Chadha (1981) in a study of mango orchards of 'Dashehari' located four clones which were superior in performance. Singh et al . (1985) isolated two high yielding clones from the orchards of 'Langra' with improved resistance to bacterial black spot. Whiley et al
  5. Elsinoe mangiferae Mango scab Erwinia vitivora Bacterial blight Erwinia stewartii Bacterial wilt Erwinia aroideae Slimy rot Erwinia atroseptica Black leg Erwinia Pseudomonas mangiferae Bacterial black spot Pseudomonas rubisubalbicans (=Xanthomonas rubrisubalbicans) mottled stripe Pseudomonas mors-prunorum Bacterial canker

Diseases of Mang

Harvesting and handling. Mango is cultivated throughout the tropics and warmer sub-tropics. There are numerous varieties, with the varieties Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, and Haden being the most common. Fruit skin is yellow or green with a golden to red blush. Weight can vary from 200 g to 1 kg and can be round, oval or kidney shaped Exotic mango varieties can improve the livelihood security and increase profitability of mango growers in Uganda. There are however, several factors like pests, diseases and orchard management practices which limit mango production and productivity. The study sought to investigate farmers' knowledge and perceptions of mango pests and diseases and orchard management practices in West Nile. Bacterial black spot Mango malformation disease Apical bud necrosis Bacterial flower disease Stem-end rots are some common mango tree diseases that are found in mango farming business. Presence of these diseases can be easily identified, but please consult your nearest horticulture for more details on the mango disease & their symptoms Mango pests and diseases Sadly, mango trees are susceptible to a wide variety of pests and diseases. The disease was reported from South India in 1901 and again in 1941 by Dr. C.V. Subramanian. Mango bacterial black spot is a very serious disease of mango. Moist weather favours the development of disease. Symptoms . Black Banded

Mango Diseases and Pests, Description, Uses, Propagatio

Gloeosporium mangiferae causes black spotting of fruits. Erwinia mangiferae and Pseudomonas mangiferaeindicae are sources of bacterial black spot in South Africa and Queensland. Bacterium carotovorus is a source of soft rot. Stem-end rot is a major problem in India and Puerto Rico from infection by Physalospora rhodina (Diplodia natalensis) Mango tree is a host of X. citri pv. anacardii, pathogen responsible of bacterial leaf and fruit spot (Zombré et al. 25 In addition, X. citri pv. mangiferaeindica, the major threat to mangoes production which can caused up to 100 % yield losses 25 was reported to infect cashew. 24 In Burkina Faso, cashew is often growing in association with.

For lack of knowledge the mango trees never fruited Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development Supporting diversification on a mango farm of 50 acres helped to boost the business. Commercial mango production remained very low for years, mainly due to Bacterial Black Spot disease (BBS) Pages 670 ; Ratings 100% (1) 1 out of 1 people found this document helpful; This preview shows page 192 - 194 out of 670 pages.preview shows page 192 - 194 out of 670 pages Bacterial canker in vegetables is caused by a different pathogen, Clavibacter michiganense pv. michiganense. Cause. The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Symptoms. This disease can affect most parts of the plant including the trunk, branches, shoots, buds, flowers, leaves and fruit. Spots on leaves often coalesce and fall away Anthracnose on beans appears on leaves at all the growth stages of a plant but often appears in the early reproductive stages on stems, petioles, and pods. It generally appears first as small and irregular yellow, brown, dark-brown, or black spots. The spots can expand and merge to cover the whole affected area Bloom blight caused a complete failure of the crop in Florida and Brazil, black spot in South Africa and powdery mildew and Black-tip in India, etc. Many types of agents cause diseases in mango and of these fungi cause the largest number of diseases, while bacteria, algae, angiospermic parasites and nutritional deficiencies are the other causal.


Plant Disease is the leading international journal for rapid reporting of research on new, emerging, and established plant diseases. The journal publishes papers that describe translational and applied research focusing on practical aspects of disease diagnosis, development, and management in agricultural and horticultural crops I have mango plantations. And in the last four months, I have not been able to harvest fruits because of BBS (bacterial black spot disease). Am I saying that I am doing agroecology, so if there are effective or efficacious pesticides that can help me to manage it very quickly, [I won't use it]? she quizzed On fruit, the first symptoms are small, dark brown-to-black, raised spots. The lesions also may have a white halo, similar to the bird's-eye spotting seen with bacterial canker. As the fruit ages, the white halos disappear. In contrast, bacterial canker fruit lesions retain their white halo. Bacterial spot lesions may increase in size to 4-6 mm. These blemishes do not expand once the mango is picked. The disease is more common in wetter areas. A disease called Bacterial Black Spot affects the leaves and fruit. It is common in areas where the climate is windy and where the trees are not healthy and strong. Black lesions grow on the leaves with greasy margins on the leaf veins Pages 670 ; Ratings 100% (1) 1 out of 1 people found this document helpful; This preview shows page 64 - 66 out of 670 pages.preview shows page 64 - 66 out of 670 pages

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