Investigation under CrPC PDF

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Spectrum of 'Inherent Powers of High Court under Cr

  1. 166A. Letter of request to competent authority for investigation in a country or place outside India. 166B. Letter of request from a country or place outside India to a Court or an authority for investigation in India. 167. Procedure when investigation cannot be completed in twenty-four hours. 168
  2. It was held by the Apex Court that, once order passed under section 156(3), an investigation must be carried out. Interference in the exercise of the statutory power of investigation by the police Firstly, it is at once obvious that whereas Section 482 CrPC is available only to the High Courts, Section 151 can b
  3. 5. Trial of offences under Penal Code. (1) All offences under the Pakistan Penal Code shall be investigated, inquired into, tried, and otherwise dealt with according to the provisions hereinafter contained. (2) Trial of offences against other laws. All offences under any other law shall be investigated, inquire

156. Investigation into cognizable cases 157. Procedure where cognizable offence suspected 158. Reports under section 157 how submitted 159. Power to hold investigation of preliminary inquiry 160. Police-officer's power to require attendance of witness 161. Examination of witnessed by police 162 There are only two kinds of offences under the criminal law, bailable offence and non-bailable offence. 2. In case of bailable offences, as per section 436 CrPC (criminal procedure code 1973) bail has to be granted to the accused as it is a matter of right for the accused to demand and be granted bail. 3 Investigation into non-cognisable eases. 156. Investigation into cognizable cases. 157. Procedure where cognizable offence suspected. Where local investigation dispensed with. Where police-officer incharge sees no sufficient ground for investigation. 158. Reports under Section 157 how submitted. 159. Power to hold investigation or preliminary.

It can be used for corroboration under Section 157 of the Evidence Act; If the maker is if a witness, it can corroborate his testimony (FIRs are recorded before the investigation and so do not come under the purview of Section 162 of the CrPC.) It can be used to contradict the author under Section 145 of the Evidence Act. Special uses of an FIR After the inspection of books of account or inquiry under Section 206 and other books and papers under section 207, the Registrar shall submit a written report to the Central Government. The report may recommend the need for further investigation alongwith reasons in support. Search and Seizure (Section 209 The term 'investigation' has been defined in Section 2(h) of the Code of Criminal procedure, Investigation includes all the proceedings under this Code for the collection of evidence conducted by a police officer or by any person (other than a Magistrate) who is authorised by a Magistrate in this behalf

An information given under sub-section (1) of section 154 CrPC is commonly known as first information report though this term is not used in the Criminal Procedure Code (in short CrPC). It is the earliest and the first information of a cognizable offence recorded by an officer-in-charge of a police station section 4 trial of offences under the indian penal code and other laws section 5 saving chapter ii consti tu ion of criminal cour sand o fice section 6 classes of criminal courts investigation in a country or place outside india section 166b letter of request from a country or place outside india to a court or an authority for.

Under Section 157 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, the procedure of investigation in criminal cases has been incorporated. It requires the intimation of information to the police officer on the commission of a crime. Before the commencement of the investigation, the police officer has to satisfy himself about certain grounds Sections of CrPC which explains about the Investigation procedure and explain under which section of the law a police officer can investigate the crime/case. 1) S 154 CrPC- Cognizable offence, FIR 2) S 155 (2) CrPC- Non Cognizable offence, order of Magistrate. 3) S 156 (3) CrPC- Cognizable Offence order of Magistrate FIR is not defined in CrPC. However, it may be defined under the following points:-1. It is a piece of information that is given to the police officer. 2. The information must relate to a cognizable offence. 3. It is an information first in point of time. 4. On the basis of the FIR, the investigation starts. 5. Such information may be oral or. Investigation according to the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 includes all proceedings under it for the collection of evidence conducted by a police officer or by any person (other than a Magistrate) who is authorised by a Magistrate in this behalf. [s.4 (1)]

(PDF) LAW TIMES JOURNAL Complete Notes of Cr

Procedure to investigate in case of a cognizable offence: S. 156 CrPC. In case of a cognizable offences, the investigation is initiated by the giving of information under section 154 CrPC to a police officer in charge of a police station. Police officer's power to investigate in a cognizabe offence is given under section 156 crPC when the Magistrate orders an investigation at pre-cognizance stage, under Section 156 (3) CrPC; when a Magistrate ordering investigation on a non-cognisable case, under Section 155 (3) CrPC; on a complaint under Section 202 CrPC; Scene Mahazar . Police should prepare a Scene Mahazar which provides the details of the scene of crime

Investigation - CrPC Notes - Notes For Fre

Procedure of Investigation under CrPC - iPleader

be made to avoid delay in investigation and trial and the procedures should aim at ensuring fair deal to the poorer sections of the society.6 The report under Sec 169 Cr Pc is referred to as a 'closure report'. The Magistrate however, can direct the police to make further investigation Spread the loveS.2(g) CrPC Inquiry, according to Sec. 2(g) Cr.P.C. means every inquiry, other than a trial, conducted under the Code, by a Magistrate or a Court. It follows that Inquiry, as contemplated in the Cr.P.C can be held either by a Magistrate or by a Court. What is done by a Police Officer under Continue reading Inquiry - CrPC Note

Cr pc complete-notes-pdf (1)-2 - SlideShar

  1. al investigation is a search for truth and anything which aids this, search should be encouraged. The scope of Article 21 of Constitution of India includes the right to know or right to Preparation of the inquest report is conducted under the CrPC as a record of crime which even though not a substantive piece of evidence, is an.
  2. The objective of sending such report is keep the magistrate informed about the investigation done by police so that he may able to guide the police about investigation and direction under section 159 of CrPC if it is necessary. In the case of Pala Singh v
  3. al Procedure is an important topic for the UPSC exam. It comes under the polity, governance, law, and internal security segments of the UPSC syllabus
  4. al Procedure, 1973 (hereinafter referred to as CrPC) and another application (Exhibit 29) for discharge. Likewise, on 14.06.2011, applications for further investigation (Exhibit 31) and for discharge (Exhibit 32) were filed by accused 2 to 6. By an orde
  5. al Procedure Code(CrPC) and Indian Evidence A ct. It has amended certain provisions of investigati ve mechanisms under the aspect of cyber crime investigati on. According to the CrPC, section 2 (h), investig ation comprises all the proceedings under the code for co llection of evidence by the police officers or by a ny perso

investigation, inquiring into or trying or otherwise dealing with such offences. As such the offences other than the offences under the Indian Penal Code, procedure relating to investigation, inquiry and trial would be applicable if provided under any other law other than the CrPC investigation under Section 161 of Criminal Procedure Code by the investigating officer. And that is why witness after recording stateme nt under section 161 Crpc, become hostile d urin Crime has registered an increase. For example, the total cognizable crime registered under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) increased from only 6.25 lakhs in 1951 to 17.2 lakhs in 2003. The total cognizable crime in 2003 was about 55 lakhs, including 37.8 Lakh offences registered under the local and special laws Short Summary of CRPC For Exams & Practice Aspect for Lawyers & Dias tool of JMFC Investigation :- Section 155(2) of the Crpc :-Magistrate Order to Police to investigate N.C.Offence; Section 156(3) of the Crpc :-Magistrate's direction (without recording the verification (Mohd. Yusuf Vs. Smt. Afaq Jahan and Anr The court has to provide certain documents to the accused when the offence is triable exclusively by the Court of Session according to Section 208 These documents should be provided when the case is not instituted based on the police reports. The documents are: 1. The statements recorded under Section 200 or Section 202 after the investigation by Magistrates; 2

Scope of Inquest Proceedings under Section 174 and whether they can termed as Investigation. The proceeding under Section 174 CrPC is limited to the inquiry carried out by the police to find out the apparent cause of unnatural death. These are not in the nature of investigation, undertaken after filing of FIR under Section 154 CrPC The police after completing the investigation have to file a final report under section 173 of the CrPC. This is the conclusion of the investigation and the evidence collected by the Investigation Agency

Detailed Overview Procedure of Investigation under Crpc

Procedure of investigation (Indian Perspective

Inspection, Inquiry and Investigation falls as the XIVth Chapter of the Companies Act, 2013. From Section 206 to Section 229, the details of Inspection, Inquiry and Investigations are explained. The Shareholders of a Company have several rights, including those of the right to vote and elect their directors, right to convene board meetings. the police officer shall get the statement of the person recorded by a Judicial Magistrate under clause (a) of sub-section (5A) of section 164 as soon as possible. 1. A copy of the information as recorded under Sub-Section (1) shall be given forthwith, free of cost, to the informant. Any person, aggrieved by a refusal on the part of an officer. An inquiry is a judicial proceeding made by a Magistrate or a court. (2) The object of an investigation is to collect evidence for the prosecution of the case, while the object of an inquiry is to determine the truth or falsity of certain facts with a view to taking further action thereon. (3) Investigation is the first stage of the case and. State of Kerala. Therefore, the petition seeking transfer of investigation from Patna to Mumbai u/s 406 CrPC is untenable in view of the text of Section 406 CrPC, Ram Chander Singh's judgment and other judgments mentioned here. At best, a petition under Article 32 of the Constitution could have been entertained Supreme Court: In the petition preferred under Article 32 of the Constitution of India by the hapless and helpless widow of Rajdev Ranjan, a senior reporter of a news daily, i.e., 'Dainik Hindustan', who was brutally murdered on 13.05.2016 by a group of persons, the Court, after considering the status report filed by the CBI, directed the CBI to complete the investigation within 3 months

Information and Investigation, FIR - CrPC Note

Though this term is not used in the Criminal Procedure Code however, 'An information given under sub-section (1) of section 154 CrPC is commonly known as first information report (FIR)' The information given to the Police Officer for registration of a case must be authentic and bona fide CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCES UNDER CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE, 1973. Author: Sejal Jain. INTRODUCTION. In colonial society, the British parliament passed the criminal procedure code, 1861 which actively served India during the post-independence era and got amended in 1969; further got replaced to The Code of Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 ad came into force on 1st April 1974 Search Warrants Criminal Procedure Rules : As Per CRPC Search means an action of to look through or examine carefully a place, area, person, object etc. in order to find anything concealed or for the purpose of discovering evidence of a crime and it can only be carried out under proper and valid authority of law The report under Section 173 is a report on the results of the investigation made under Chapter XIV, which means an investigation made under Section 155 (2) or Section 156. The 'Police report' which Section 173 contemplates cannot therefore be a report of a case in respect of which no investigation under Chapter XIV has taken place or is.

(PDF) Law of Investigation Munir Mughal - Academia

  1. Section 154 And 156 of CrPC. Hon'ble Apex Court, in the matter of M. Subramaniam & Anr. Vs. S. Janaki & Anr, has recently set aside a High Court order which directed the police to register an FIR and file the final report on the basis of the complaint.Hon'ble Supreme Court placed reliance on its previous decision in the matter of Sakiri Vasu v
  2. View CrPC Report.docx from FAM LAW 101 at Symbiosis Law school ,Noida. CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE-I INTERNAL II REPORT ON THE GUEST LECTURE Submitted By Arun Nachiappan BBA.LLB- Divisio
  3. Power conferred on ex officio justice of peace under Sections 22-A and 22-B, Cr.P.C. deal with issues relating to non-registration of FIR, transfer of investigation under Article 18(6) of the Police order, 2002 and neglect, failure or excess committed by a Police Authority
  4. The series of events happened in the case depicts a shady picture of everything that has happened with Seema Devi. First, the police authorities failed to provide any legally tenable reason for her detention, or for that matter any provision in CrPC under which witness could be taken in custody and detained for the purpose of investigation.[10
  5. al Procedure Code provides wide powers of directing investigation to the Magistrate including the power to direct further investigation but the further investigation covered here does not hinder the further investigation which can be performed by the Investigating Officer under section 173(8)
  6. An FIR is a report given to the police after a cognizable crime has been allegedly committed. Once an offence occurs, the aggrieved person or anyone else can approach the police to take action against the accused and an FIR is the first step towards prosecuting the accused. Section 154 of CrPC is the section that deals with FIRs
All about General Provisions of CrPC as to Inquiries and

First of all, we need to look into Section 2(h) of CrPC, which says investigation includes all the proceedings conducted under CrPC by a Police Officer or a person authorized by the magistrate in this behalf (not Magistrate himself) for the purpose of collection of evidence and Section 156(3) of CrPC, which provides that Magistrate can order an. If an investigation under sub-section (1) is made by a person not being a police officer, he shall have for that investigation all the powers conferred by this Code on an officer in charge of a police station except the power to arrest without warrant. Section 203 of CRPC Dismissal of complain Top 10 Landmark Judgments on Criminal Procedure Code . Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 came in force on 1st April 1974. It is a procedural law laid down by the legislation to provide for the procedures to be followed in case of investigation of crime, apprehension of suspected criminals, collection of evidence, determination of guilt or innocence of the accused person and the determination of. If the offences under the PMLA were non-cognizable, compliance with the procedure under Section 155 (1) Cr PC was mandatory but not followed in the instant case. The investigation could not have commenced except upon information being entered in a book, and the informant being referred to the competent Magistrate

Role Of Police And Its Power To Investigat

  1. for the purpose of proceeding under the subsequent sections of the Chapter but for taking action of some other kind, e.g. ordering investigation u/S. 156(3), or issuing a search warrant for the purpose of the investigation, he cannot be said to have taken cognizance of the offence
  2. e the accused. It is enshrined in Chapter XXIV of the Act and has four clauses. Section 313 (1) of CrPC deals with when the accused is allowed in a trial or inquiry to explain any circumstance personally to the judge, which is against evidence appearing against him
  3. 4. Exception under Crpc. Any person under the age of 16 years or any women or any sick or infirm person is entitled to be released on bail even in a case of serious nature as per provision of Sec-497(i) of Cr.P.C. Infirmity due to old age is also a good ground for granting of bail. - 49 DLR(AD) 11

Short Summary of Investigation Under CRPC For Exam Purpose & Practice Aspect - With Judgment February 25, 2021 February 25, 2021 Vakil Saheb 0 Schedule - 01 - Compoundable Offences IPC - List of Sectio A Study of Functionaries under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. Law is considered to be an enactment of rule by a competent authority that possesses power above the subjects. In order to uphold and execute the rules set by the authority, laws can be classified into: (1) Substantive laws that define the wrongful acts and. Section 91(1) CrPc: An analysis of Constitutional validity. any proceeding be instituted the accused shall be provided with the police report filed by police after completion of investigation under section 170, First Information Report lodged by the complainant under section 154, all the statements of witnesses and accused recorded during.

Police investigation: Its legal provision

1600. Investigation includes all the proceedings under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 for the collection of evidence conducted by a Police officer or by any person (other than a Magistrate) who is authorized by a Magistrate. (Section 2(h) of the Criminal Procedure Code). 1601 (1). The following principles are laid down to guide the exercise of their discretion by Station House Officers in the matter of refusing investigation under section 157 (1) (b) of the Criminal Procedure Code. (2). The investigation may be properly refused in the following cases:-(a)

10. Things obtained at the time of the investigation/ Confiscated and property relied upon/ details of the articles (if necessary add a separate list along with the same) Sr. Description of the property Estimated value Sr. no. of the Police Station record diary Property recovered from whom and from where Disposal 1. NA NA NA NA NA 2 technology and forensic investigation •The law specifies what can be seized, under what conditions, from whom, and from where it may be seized. The determination of what a particular piece of digital evidence is, requires its examination. •Section 144 of the CrPC

under judicial custody at Central Jail, Guwahati, Assam in connection with the instant case. During the course of investigation by NIA, accused person namely Pradip Brahma @ Pwler, age- 26 years, S/o. Lt. Bonendra Nath Brahma, R/o. vill- Besorkona, PS - Bagribari, Dist -Kokrajhar , (BTAD), Assam who was the S 4. Trial of offences under the Indian Penal Code and other laws. - (1) All offences under the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) shall be investigated, inquired into, tried, and otherwise dealt with according to the provisions hereinafter contained. (2) All offences under any other law shall be investigated, inquired into, tried, an 1.6 Large number of persons arrested under sections 107 to 110, CrPC.- There is yet another category viz., sections 107 to 110 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. These sections empower the Magistrate to call upon a person, in situations/circumstances stated therein, to execute a bond to keep peace or to be o If an investigation under sub-section (1) is made by a person not being a police officer, he shall have for that investigation all the powers conferred by . the Code on an officer in charge of a police station except the power to arrest without warrant. S. 203- Dismissal of complaint

Inquiry - CrPC Notes - Notes For Fre

173. Report of police officer on completion of investigation. (1) Every investigation under this Chapter shall be completed without unnecessary delay. (2) (i) As soon as it is completed, the officer in charge of the police station shall forward to a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offense on a police report, a repor Attachment to Item 7 of Crime Details Form or Item 10 of Property Search & Seizure Form. N.C.R.B. Details of identifiable numbered or unnumbered property including fire-arms seized/ recovered/ stolen/ involved CrPC Sections pdf download. 481-विक्रय से संबद्ध लोक सेवक का सम्पत्ति का क्रय न करना और उसके लिए बोली न लगान

All About Information to Police and their Powers to

Cognizance – a Birds Eye View – Justice R

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE BAIL & BONDS Sections: 436 - 438 If the offence is bailable, bail will be granted under Section 436 without more ado; but if the offence is not bailable, further considerations will arise and the Section 437 deals with two stages during the initial period of investigation of a non-bailable offence Investigation shall be completed within three months in relation to rape of a child from the date of recording of information by the PO. Prosecution for contempt of lawful authority. (Sec 195): Cognizance can be taken by court for the offences under section 172 to 188 or abetment or attempt to commit o All about General Provisions of CrPC as to Inquries and Trials By Shriya Shrivatava (Download PDF) Introduction. Inquiries and trial are simply two out of the various stages in the due course of deciding a case of criminal nature. They are both defined as under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 Central Government Act. Section 2 (h) in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973. (h) investigation includes all the proceedings under this Code for the collection of evidence conducted by a police officer or by any person (other than a Magistrate) who is authorised by a Magistrate in this behalf Article shared by. Legal provisions regarding police search during investigation under section 165 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. (1) Whenever an officer-in-charge of a police station or a police officer making an investigation has reasonable grounds for believing that anything necessary for the purposes of an investigation into any offence which he is authorized to investigate may.

The result of investigation under Chapter xii of the Criminal Procedure Code is a conclusion that an investigating officer draws on the basis of materials collected during investigating and such conclusion can only form the basis of a competent court to take cognizance thereupon under Section 190(1)(b) Cr PC and to proceed with the case for. Mr. Tushar Mehta, learned Additional Solicitor General submitted that application of mind was necessary to exercise power under Section 156(3) of the Cr.P.C. and that credibility of information was to be weighed before ordering investigation relying on the judgment of Ramdev Food Products (P) Ltd. v. State of Gujarat, (2015) 6 SCC 439 Arrest of a Person in CRPC. A) Introduction - Chapter V of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 from Sec.41 to 60A provides for the procedure for arrest of persons who have committed an offence under IPC or any other law in force in India. The provisions of this Chapter are amended by the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 2005, 2008, 2010,2018 Student Crpc Llb Jyothi 6 evidence. Preview text the of fences classified under I.P. C. and (ii) the of fences classified other than I.P.C. The nature of trial are divided on the basis of seriousness of . of fences, its gravity and jurisdiction and on the basis of the gravit y

The court thinks that the production of such evidence by such person be useful to the investigation, Inquiry, trial, or other providing under the CODE. Before issuing a search warrant, the court must comply with the rule that, U/s.91 the summons had been already issued to the person and would not produce the documents Any accused released on bail under proviso (a) to Section 167(2) of the Code read with Section 20(4)(b) or Section 20(4)(bb), because of the default on the part of the investigating agency to conclude the investigation, within the period prescribed, in view of proviso (a) to Section 167(2) itself, shall be deemed to have been so released under. 1. Investigation related duties and jobs 2. Crime prevention and preservation of peace and security 3. Crime detection work 4. Order maintenance and security jobs 5. Enforcement of Social Legislation, Minor, Major and Special Acts 6. Collection of Intelligence 7. Democratic and election related duties 8 Criminal Procedure Code - CrPC Notes QUESTION`1:- Discuss the Rights of an arrested person? ANSWER:- Cr P C gives powers to the police for arresting a person with such power Cr P.C also provides rights to an arrested person.Rights of an arrested are as follows - 1. Right to know the grounds of arrest - Section 50(1) - According to this provision, every police officer or other person. Section 154 And 156 of CrPC. Court observed: (SCC p. 631, para 11) that a Judicial Magistrate, before taking cognizance of the offence, may order investigation under Section 156(3) of the Code.

CrPC Chapter XII; S. 160 Police Officer's power to require attendance of witnesses: Description; Any police officer making an investigation under this Chapter may, by order in writing, require the attendance before himself of any person being within the limits of his own or any adjoining station who, from the information given or otherwise, appears to be acquainted with the facts and. This was because of the arbitrary and unjust use of these powers. In a case, the persons arrested under section 107 and section 151 were not given a chance to be heard for 6 days. The case was tried without any scrutiny under issue. And, no order was issued under section 111 of the CrPC under section 41A CrPC and appearing before the concerned officer for investigation / interrogation at the police station, may request the concerned IO for an. acknowledgement, (vi) In the event, the suspect / accused is directed to appear at a place other than the police station (a OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE, 1898 •Release of accused when evidence deficient. If, upon an investigation under this Chapter, it appears to the officer incharge of the police-station, or to the police-officer making the investigation that there is not sufficient evidence or reasonable ground of suspicion to justify th THE CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2010 A BILL further to amend the Code of Criminal Procedure Act, 1973. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Sixty-first Year of the Republic of India as follows:— 1. (1) This Act may be called the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 2010. (2) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notificatio

Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC): Explained for the UPSC Exa

increased continually from 2003 to 2007. A total of 185,312 incidents of crimes against women, both under IPC and SLL, were reported during 2007 as compared to 164,765 during 2006, recording an increase of 12.5% during 2007. For the total number of crimes under the IPC, the share of crimes against women was 8.8% in 2007 Addressing the respondent's submission that a case for further investigation was filed under 173(8) of CrPC, the High Court stated that a case under Section 173(8) does not bar a Writ court from issuing further order to conduct a private investigation. Stating so, the court relied on the case, Vinay Tyagi v. Irshad Ali & Ors

If no such investigation has taken place after the lodging of FIR, the magistrate using its power under Section 190 may order the Police to conduct the investigation (Section 156(3) of CRPC, 1973) The object of Criminal Procedure Code is to provide machinery for the punishment of offenders against the substantive Criminal law. In layman's language, the Criminal Procedure Code lays (CrPC) the rules for conduct of proceedings against any person who has committed an offence under any Criminal law, whether it is I.P.C or other Criminal law

Rights of Arrested Person | Arrest | Detention (Imprisonment)

(Pdf) a Critical Study on Hostile Witnesses: Problem and

Abstract. This paper deals with the subject of investigation in cognizable cases.The relevant provision of law on the subject is section 156 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 which reads as under: (1) Investigation into cognizable cases Learned MM while dismissing the application under Section 156(3) CrPC, also observed that if any investigation at all is required to be done, that can be done under Section 202 CrPC after the evidence of the Complainant is recorded under Section 200 CrPC. 9 Maintenance under Section 125 CrPC. Section 125 of CrPC is meant to achieve a social purpose that is to prevent vagrancy, destitution, and poverty. It provides a speedy remedy for the supply of food, clothing, and shelter to the deserted wife. The object of this provision is to compel a man to perform his moral obligation which he owes to. The Necessity of Mandatory Audio-Video Recording under S.161 of CrPC. S.161 of the Code of Criminal Procedure ( CrPC ) lays down the rule of examination of witness by the police. It states (relevant portion): a police officer may examine orally any person supposed to be acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case.[1 Difference Between Inquiry and Investigation Inquiry vs Investigation Man acquires knowledge through observation, inquiry, and investigation into things that interest him. In every aspect of his life, he uses these tools to provide him with information about everything in his world, especially the processes of inquiry and investigation. Through inquiry and investigation he is able to learn.