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If the pons is damaged, which of the following functions would be affected

E) pons. 56) The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as 56) A) aphasia. B) dysphagia. C) ataxia. D) Parkinson's. E) epilepsy. 57) Stimulation of the reticular activating system results in 57) A) increased consciousness. B) decreased. Pons Functions: - Control of respiration If the pons was damaged, which of the following functions would be affected? - control of blood pressure - sleep patterns - coordination - breathing - judgment. ataxia. The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor.

51)If the pons was damaged, which of the following functions would be affected? 51) A)coordination B)control of blood pressure C)breathing D)sleep patterns E)judgment 8. 52)Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintainbalance and equilibrium are functions of the 52)A)cerebellum.B)pons.C)medulla oblongata.D. pons. If the pons was damaged, which of the following functions would be affected? The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as. ataxia. The medulla oblongata relays auditory information to the The medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain comprise the. If the pons was damaged, which of the following functions would be affected? breathing. Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of. The cerebellum and pons develop from the. If the pons was damaged, which of the following functions would be affected? The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as

midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata. Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the If the pons was damaged, which of the following functions would be affected? breathing. Damage to the corpora quadrigemina would interfere with Damage to the pons can result in serious problems as this brain area is important for connecting areas of the brain that control autonomic functions and movement. Injury to the pons may result in sleep disturbances, sensory problems, arousal dysfunction and coma

If the pons was damaged which of the following functions

  1. When damage occurs to the brain due to stroke, tumour, traumatic injury or other reasons, the resulting symptoms are dependent on where the brain was damaged and the extent of the damage. Symptoms may include alterations to the person's speech, mobility, memory and even personality. Please enable JavaScript to continue using this application
  2. Nerve cells (neurons) can also be damaged. Certain areas of the brain are particularly susceptible to myelinolysis, especially the part of the brain stem called the pons. Some individuals will also have damage in other areas of the brain, which is called extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM)
  3. A stroke involving the pons can be caused by either a blood clot (ischemic stroke) or a bleed (hemorrhagic stroke). 3  An ischemic stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks the blood flow through an artery to a certain region in the brain
  4. Since the main function of the pons is to connect different parts of your nervous system, any damage to it would disrupt that connection and cause serious complications as a result. These can include sleep disturbances, sensory problems, and impaired voluntary movement control among others

Pons is very important part of brain for the regulation and control of a number of vital functions. It not only acts as a control center, but also contains nuclei of some important cranial nerves. We can appreciate the importance of pons from the fact that any damage or trauma to pons can cause the immediate death of the person The primary function of pons is also to act as a motor relay center. Many of the descending nerve fibers of various tracts synapse in the region of the pons, which only go on to show how important pons function is. The importance of the pons cannot be underplayed for the simple reason that it is so closely associated with the brain stem The Pons Serves as a Communication Center for the Brain. The main function of the pons in your brainis serving as a relay center for many important messages that must go between different areas of the brain. It aids in many vital functions of the brain by transmitting signals between the forebrain and the cerebellum The cerebellum controls which muscles should activate and which need to relax. It does this by sending inhibitory or excitatory signals to the right muscle groups. However, if this region is damaged, then this process is disrupted, which will make muscle coordination difficult, if not impossible She has lost some sensory and motor functions associated with the face, like control of facial muscles for emotion and various sensory functions like taste. In addition, she has some hearing loss and balance problems. The location of the tumor is likely to be the. A) cerebellum. B) cerebrum. C) medulla. D) thalamus. E) pons

Damage to the left parietal lobe can result in what is called 'Gerstmann's Syndrome.' It includes right-left confusion, difficulty with writing (agraphia) and difficulty with mathematics (acalculia). It can also produce disorders of language (aphasia) and the inability to perceive objects normally (agnosia) The tegmentum is the evolutionarily older part of the pons which forms part of the reticular formation - a set of nuclei found throughout the brainstem that are responsible for arousal and attentiveness. Damage to this part of the pons may result in anosognosia for hemiplegia, where patients are unaware of their paralysis A number of problems, including weakness, paralysis, numbness, incoordination, hydrocephalus, difficulties with taste, balance, chewing, hearing, vision, and disturbances of consciousness, may occur if these important structures or nearby structures are affected The pons is a portion of the brain stem, located above the medulla oblongata and below the midbrain. Although it is small, at approximately 2.5 centimeters long, it serves several important functions According to Dr. Jeffry P. Ricker, damage to the medulla oblongata can have fatal results. The medulla oblongata is a small part of the brain stem, about 1.5 inches in length, that regulates a number of autonomic processes, such as controlling the diameter of the body's blood vessels, maintaining heart rate, and controlling reflexes such as swallowing and vomiting

A&P 1 Chapter 14 Flashcards Quizle

  1. Cognitive function is usually unaffected. Communication is possible through eye movements or blinking. Locked-in syndrome is caused by damaged to the pons, a part of the brainstem that contains nerve fibers that relay information to other areas of the brain. Introductio
  2. 89. Which of the following are among the functions affected by the hypothalamus? a. sexual behavior, temperature regulation, and sleeping b. memory creation and storage c. respiration and heart rate d. alerting the higher brain centers that sensory information is about to come in Answer: a Book: Passer Difficulty: Med Page: 108-109 Style: Factual Topic: Brain and Behavior APA Goal: 1 90
  3. ately iatrogenic (treatment-induced), and is characterized by acute paralysis, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dysarthria (difficulty speaking), and other neurological symptoms
  4. 95. Two important structures in the limbic system are: a. the hippocampus and the amygdala. b. the medulla and the amygdala. c. the hippocampus and the pons. d. the reticular formation and the pons. Answer: a Book: Passer Difficulty: Low Page: 113 Style: Knowledge Topic: Brain and Behavior APA Goal: 1.2 96. Although the _____ is known to play a role in the formation of motivational and.
  5. The facial nerve (the labyrinthine segment) is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply CN VII.It emerges from the pons of the brainstem, controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The nerves typically travels from the pons through the facial canal in the temporal bone and exits the skull at the.
  6. Damage to the pons will result in a range of effects on sleep. For example, damage to certain parts of the pons can put a person into a semi-permanent sleep-like state. Research with animals has.
  7. 01) The limbic system, which is involved in functions like learning, memory, emotion, and motivation, includes all of the following brain structures EXCEPT a pons b. hippocampus c. amygdala d. thalamus 02) Noutotransmitters are passed between neurons in the small space betwoen axons and dendrites known as the a. synapse b. myelin sheath c. som d. nucleus 03) Kelly has received damage to her.

The brainstem: pons. The pons is the biggest part of the brainstem (6). It is located under the midbrain and above the medulla oblongata. The pons connects several different parts of the nervous system, including the cerebellum and the cerebrum. The pons helps with the following tasks: Interpreting sensory input in the face; Controlling facial. This is because cranial nerves serve different functions in different areas of the brain stem and within the pons itself. For example, a stroke on the back of the pons may lead to ataxia, a condition characterized by the loss of muscle coordination. Other common pontine stroke symptoms include double vision, vertigo, and dizziness What cranial nerves are affected by a stroke? One — the sixth cranial nerve — affects eye movement to the side, and the other — the seventh cranial nerve — affects facial movement. A stroke on one side of the pons will affect these nerves causing the eye and facial muscle weakness on the same side of the body as the injury The following are some treatments that can help you overcome the effects of damage to the thalamus: 1. Physical Therapy. If your brain injury damaged your thalamus, you might experience problems coordinating movements — a condition called apraxia. For example, you might begin walking with a wide, staggering gait or have trouble reaching for. At stage 4, significant damage has been done to the olfactory system. Stage 5. Parkinson's has spread to the mesocortex — the area of the brain between the limbic system and outermost part of.

Special Sensory Functions. The chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve is responsible for innervating the anterior 2/3 of the tongue with the special sense of taste.. The nerve arises in the facial canal, and travels across the bones of the middle ear, exiting via the petrotympanic fissure, and entering the infratemporal fossa.. Here, the chorda tympani 'hitchhikes' with the lingual nerve One of the most important functions of hypothalamus is that it connects the nervous system to the endocrine system through the pituitary gland. When the hypothalamus gets damaged it can cause several problems that can lead to many disorders. In order to keep the body healthy one has to maintain low risk, though the diseases of hypothalamus are very uncommon

  1. Mary McMahon Brain stem damage may be the result of a car crash. The symptoms of brain stem damage vary, depending on the intensity of the injury, and can span a range from mild cognitive impairments to coma. Identifying damage early and providing prompt treatment will improve the chances of a positive outcome significantly
  2. The Pons serves a specific function in the brain; it sorts and relays messages between different sections of the brain. Specifically, the Pons relays messages between the cortex in the brain and the cerebellum. Our brain is absolutely incredible and is what ultimately makes humans human.All the parts of the brain are extremely important, but the Pons stands out just a little more than some of.
  3. Messages from the cortex to the spinal cord and nerves that branch from the spinal cord are sent through the pons and the brainstem. Destruction of these regions of the brain will cause brain death. Without these key functions, humans cannot survive. The reticular activating system is found in the midbrain, pons, medulla and part of the thalamus

When medulla oblongata is damaged then which following function got af - askIITians. When medulla oblongata is damaged then which following function got affected 1. No thermoregulation2. no vision3. No memory4. No response when prickle with needle.Pls explain the options There are 9 major areas of the brain that can be affected by stroke. Each area of the brain controls different functions, and everyone's brain is wired a bit differently. Therefore, the effects of a stroke greatly vary from person to person. This is why therapists and doctors frequently say, Every stroke is different, so every recovery 9 Major Areas of the Brain Affected by Stroke. Which of the following is NOT a function of the limbic system? a. establishing emotional states b. linking the conscious, intellectual function of the cerebral cortex with unconscious autonomic functions of the brain stem c. facilitating memory storage and retrieval d. directing somatic motor patterns associated with rage, pleasure, and pai Myelin is fatty material that forms a sheath around the nerves of the CNS to insulate and protect the them. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease in which the sheath is partially or completely destroyed causing symptoms like fatigue, pain, bladder and bowel problems, sexual dysfunction, and memory problems Locked-in syndrome (LIS), also known as pseudocoma, is a condition in which a patient is aware but cannot move or communicate verbally due to complete paralysis of nearly all voluntary muscles in the body except for vertical eye movements and blinking.The individual is conscious and sufficiently intact cognitively to be able to communicate with eye movements

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The lesions were evaluated with the use of MRI in all patients. The location was variable: caudal pons in 1, middle pons in 2, rostral pons in 1, caudal and middle pons in 1, and middle and rostral pons in 2 patients. Two had large infarcts: 1 in the middle pons and 1 in the rostral pons. Four had medium-sized and 1 had small lesions When this part of the brain is damaged, any of these functions may be impaired. One symptom of damage to the hippocampus is amnesia, the loss of some portion of the memory. Hippocampus damage can also lead to poor impulse control, hyperactivity, and difficulty with spatial navigation or memory. Damage to the hippocampus may result in amnesia Damage to the medulla oblongata can result in the need for a ventilator or other supportive equipment to keep the body working. This region of the brain is located at the bottom of the brainstem, the structure which connects the brain and spinal cord.The medulla oblongata sits directly on top of the spinal cord, below the area of the brainstem known as the pons What happens when the cerebral cortex is damaged depends on the location of the damage, according to The University of Washington. As the largest part of the brain, the cerebral cortex is composed of the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. Damage to each of these lobes produces different symptoms Damage to the amygdala can cause problems with memory processing, emotional reactions, and even decision-making. In this article, you will learn more about the most common symptoms that amygdala damage can cause. But first, we'll give you a brief overview of the amygdala's most important functions. Functions of the Amygdala The amygdala is a small, Damage to the Amygdala: Functions.

Chapter 14 Flashcards Chegg

If you damage the left side of your medulla, it will lead to loss of motor function to the right side of your body. Similarly, if the right side of the medulla is damaged, it will affect the left. The spinal cord is protected by bony vertebrae and cushioned in cerebrospinal fluid, but injuries still occur. When the spinal cord is damaged in a particular segment, all lower segments are cut off from the brain, causing paralysis. Therefore, the lower on the spine damage is, the fewer functions an injured individual loses. The Two Hemisphere Cranial Nerve V: The Trigeminal Nerve. Findings in psychiatric conditions. The corneal reflex, which involves trigeminal nerve afferents and facial nerve efferents, was found reduced in 30 percent and absent in eight percent of patients with schizophrenia who were chronically hospitalized. 3 Generally, the reflex is absent in states of sedation and coma 4 and after damage to the contralateral. Look up the English to Arabic translation of affected in the PONS online dictionary. Includes free vocabulary trainer, verb tables and pronunciation function

Parkinson disease is predominantly a disorder of the basal ganglia, which are a group of nuclei situated at the base of the forebrain. The striatum, composed of the caudate and putamen, is the. OVERVIEW 'The Brainstem Rules of Four' is an approach to the anatomic localization of brainstem lesions developed by Dr Peter Gates Pathways that pass through the entire length of the brainstem and can be likened to 'meridians of longitude' whereas the various cranial nerves can be regarded as 'parallels of latitude'. If you establish where the meridians of longitude and parallels. The brainstem is the most inferior and primitive part of the brain, continuous caudally with the spinal cord and rostrally with the diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus) ( 1 ). The named parts, from cranial to caudal, comprise the midbrain (mesencephalon), pons (metencephalon), and medulla oblongata (myelencephalon) Stroke Connection e-news is our monthly publication delivering news, resources and stories for stroke survivors and their caregivers. Let us know what topics related to life after stroke you'd like us to cover. And we encourage you to submit your stories for potential publication Treatment. Your midbrain (derived from the mesencephalon of the neural tube) is a part of the central nervous system, located below your cerebral cortex and at the topmost part of your brainstem. This tiny, but mighty, structure plays a crucial role in processing information related to hearing, vision, movement, pain, sleep, and arousal

Detecting damage to the medulla and other parts of the brain stem can be difficult, as people who have injuries here may not be able to fully participate in an examination. The following are a few examples of tests that may be done to determine the level of function in the brainstem While it is indeed responsible for innervating the muscles of facial expression, the facial nerve is a complex structure containing many fiber types with a variety of functions, including motor, sensory, and autonomic. The following article will discuss the importance and versatility facial nerve. Contents Pons, portion of the brainstem lying above the medulla oblongata and below the cerebellum and the cavity of the fourth ventricle. The pons is a broad horseshoe-shaped mass of transverse nerve fibres that connect the medulla with the cerebellum. It is also the point of origin or termination for four of the cranial nerves that transfer sensory information and motor impulses to and from the.

Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 14 Questions and Study

  1. The corticospinal tract controls primary motor activity for the somatic motor system from the neck to the feet.[1] It is the major spinal pathway involved in voluntary movements. The tract begins in the primary motor cortex where the soma of pyramidal neurons are located within cortical layer V. Axons for these neurons travel in bundles through the internal capsule, cerebral peduncles, and.
  2. Hypothalamus damage after brain injury can also lead to low thyroid function. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland on the front of your neck. It produces several thyroid hormones that are critical for functions such as metabolism, growth, body temperature, and several others
  3. The motor portion, or the facial nerve proper, supplies all the facial musculature. The principal muscles are the frontalis, orbicularis oculi, buccinator, orbicularis oris, platysma, the posterior belly of the digastric, and the stapedius muscle. In nuclear or infranuclear (peripheral) lesions, there is a partial to complete facial paralysis with smoothing of the brow, open eye, flat.
  4. The brainstem or Truncus encephali in Latin is a brain structure located between the medulla and the spinal cord (1). It is the base of the brain. It consists of the midbrain, the medulla oblongata or the long medulla, the Varoli's bridge, and the spinal cord. The function of the brainstem is to receive, process, and adjust certain functions.
  5. nigra functions in motor control and reward pathways. The red nucleus, part of the extrapyramidal system, has roles in motor coordination. The pons connects the brain to the cerebellum and can be divided into a ventral part and a dorsal tegmentum. The ventral part contains longitudinal fibers primarily from th
Which of the following is a property of the blood brain

Chapter 14 Mastering Flashcards Quizle

Another pons function of the brainstem is to help determine a person's level of sleep or consciousness. Part of the structure is attached to the cerebellum, which is involved in controlling movement and posture. Damage to the pons often results in lack of coordination and difficulty processing new sensory data Physical therapy intervention is the primary treatment for gait ataxia and imbalance in individuals with cerebellar damage. Physical therapy aims to restore movement and function following cerebellum injury using movement, exercise and manual therapy, as well as education and advice. Physical therapy may include exercises such a Locked-in syndrome is a rare condition that usually happens when there is damage to the part of the brain stem called the pons, e.g. through a stroke. One of the reasons the pons is important is, because it transmits information between the brain and the spinal cord The pons. Learning objective: to recognize the principal features of the pons as seen from the surface, including the attachments of cranial nerves V and VI-VIII.; Specimens: whole brains, mid-sagittal hemispheres, and brain or brainstem models ; Activities: . Refer to Figure 2.10 and its corresponding chart ().; Find each of the features listed in the chart and described in the text as you. Brain Stem Function. The function of the brain stem can be described as a relay station that passes messages throughout the body to and from the cerebral cortex. The brain stem is made up of three structures: the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

Location and Function of the Pons in the Human Brai

Damage to the front part of the parietal lobe on one side causes numbness and impairs sensation on the opposite side of the body. Affected people have difficulty identifying a sensation's location and type (pain, heat, cold, or vibration). People may have difficulty recognizing objects by touch (that is, by their texture and shape) The hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the brain lesions found on the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Your cerebellum is located in the lower back area of your brain, behind the top part of your brainstem, where your spinal cord connects with your brain. This area helps control coordination, posture, and balance, as well as speech and a number. Test 4 Brain & Cranial Nerves. Which of the following statements concerning the brainstem is true? C) Damage to the brainstem is usually fatal. In the CNS, clusters of gray matter containing cell bodies are called. A) nuclei. The fact that the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body is explained by the There is a reduction of fear and aggression in the person if the amygdala gets damaged. However, there is also something more to it. Bilateral lesion of amygdala also causes the affected person to have an impaired ability to interpret emotional aspect of facial expression. A damage to the amygdala is linked to autism. Amygdala has a potential relationship with the social ability of a human. Together with nerves of the medulla, nerves from the pons also control breathing and the body's sense of equilibrium. What had been the middle bulge in the neural tube develops into the midbrain, which functions mainly as a relay center for sensory and motor nerve impulses between the pons and spinal cord and the thalamus and cerebral cortex

Understanding Brain Damage Locations Ausme

Pons. Continuing further up, we meet the pons. This is the middle portion of the brainstem, bridging the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. The pons' function is varied, mainly involving sleep, respiration, swallowing, hearing, bladder control, equilibrium and taste, as well as various other motor functions UNDERSTANDING HOW KEY FUNCTIONS OF THE BRAIN ARE AFFECTED BY DEMENTIA You do not have to become an expert on the brain to be a good dementia health care worker. However, having a basic awareness of the brain's functioning may help you to understand some of the difficulties a person with dementia is experiencing The 12 cranial nerves are pairs of nerves that start in different parts of your brain. They control everything from your facial expression to digestion. We'll go over how these nerves are. Pons means bridge in Latin, and the pons functions as a bridge between different parts of the brain 2 3. Midbrain. The midbrain, together with the pons and the medulla, builds the brainstem, and contains several parts. The tectum controls eye movement, auditory and visual reflexes and processing. The tegmentum controls reflexes

The brain is a key organ in the nervous system, and it controls the functions of the body. Brain damage, then, can have major consequences on the way in which the entire body functions The frontal lobe is a part of the brain that controls key functions relating to consciousness and communication, memory, attention, and other roles. Damage can result from trauma or a medical. The Pons. The pons is the other respiratory center and is located underneath the medulla. Its main function is to control the rate or speed of involuntary respiration. It has two main functional regions that perform this role: The apneustic center sends signals for inspiration for long and deep breaths In addition to communication problems like aphasia, a condition affecting the ability to understand or process language, communication deficits may include decreased attention, distractibility and the inability to inhibit inappropriate behavior. Problem-solving ability is sometimes affected, typically in survivors of right-brain strokes Function. The cerebellum is the area at the back and bottom of the brain, behind the brainstem. The cerebellum has several functions relating to movement and coordination, including: Maintaining.

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The affected nerve cells and the related functions they control are damaged as well. Are brain bleeds fatal? Brain bleeds, regardless of location, usually happen suddenly. (However, some - for example, subdural hematomas - can take days to weeks before symptoms develop.) A brain bleed causes brain damage and yes, they can be life-threatening D. Jeffress Breathing and speaking difficulties may result from laryngeal nerve damage. The superior and inferior laryngeal nerves in the throat control the movement and function of the larynx, also called the voice box.Significant breathing and speaking difficulties can arise if one or both nerves are damaged due to trauma, infection, surgical complications, or other causes Clinical Approach to Brainstem Lesions. The brainstem consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. The cerebellum is attached to the dorsal surface of the pons and upper medulla. The brainstem contains 9 of the 12 cranial nerves and is crossed by ascending, descending, and cerebellar pathways and their nuclei as well as the reticular formation

The United States Department of Defense has begun exploring the link between brain and pituitary damage in veterans, to determine if hormone replacement may help them. The NFL has even noted the high level of pituitary damage to those players suffering from traumatic brain injuries Midbrain, region of the developing vertebrate brain that is composed of the tectum and tegmentum. The midbrain serves important functions in motor movement, particularly movements of the eye, and in auditory and visual processing. It is located within the brainstem and between the forebrain and the hindbrain The medulla oblongata is approximately 3 cm in length and 2 cm in greatest diameter 2). The caudal border of the medulla is the 1st cervical spinal nerves. The superior broad part of the medulla joins the pons 3). Externally, two longitudinal ridges called pyramids (Figure 1) flank the ventral midline of the medulla oblongata

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Stroke and the Pons Region of the Brain - Verywell Healt

However, if someone has a left side brain stroke it can cause the following five symptoms: Weakness or paralysis to the right side of the body. The left sided weakness symptoms may occur to the person who has a stroke in the left side of the brain. Weakness is caused by damage to the brain and not damage to the limb itself Ultimately, cerebellum functioning affects our ability to stand, balance, and move when and how we want. It also allows us to speak. In fact, over 50% of all neurons in the brain are located in. The medulla oblongata is a portion of the hindbrain that controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion, heart and blood vessel function, swallowing, and sneezing. Motor and sensory neurons from the midbrain and forebrain travel through the medulla. As part of the brainstem, the medulla oblongata helps transfer messages between parts of the brain and spinal cord Pons. The pons is the larger swelling just above the medulla. This term means bridge, and the pons is indeed the bridge between the lower parts of the brain and the upper sections. As in the medulla, there is a crossover of nerves, but in this case it is the motor nerves carrying messages from the brain to the body

The Pons Function: Your Bridge To A Good Night's Sleep

Cranial nerves were affected in 62 cases. The most affected CN was the olfactory nerve (CN I), followed by the facial nerve (CN VII) and the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI). When more than 1 CN was involved, the most frequent association was between CNs VII and VIII The term attention is a broad term that encompasses a number of functions, some of them very subtly complicated. Various aspects of attention and concentration are affected by chronic use of methamphetamine as a result of damage that occurs to the neurons in the frontal and prefrontal cortex of the brain 7. Consider the following five terms and determine which does not belong. A) medulla oblongata B) pons C) cardiac center D) pyramids E) olives Answer: b Level: 1 8. A patient with a traumatic head injury may exhibit vomiting as a result of irritation of nuclei in the A) pons. B) cerebellum. C) medulla oblongata. D) corpora quadrigemina The functions of reticular activating system can be affected by certain drugs. For example, general anaesthetics and tranquillizers cause its suppression while ammonia and other irritants stimulate it. The sleep is thought to occur because of a decrease in activity within the reticular activating system Germany's most-trusted foreign-language dictionary. Includes language-learning materials, definitions, examples, pronunciation tips and a vocabulary trainer

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A brain lesion describes an area of damaged brain. It may be isolated or there may be numerous areas affected. Symptoms of a brain lesion depend upon what part of the brain is affected and may be minimal or life-threatening. Diagnosis of brain lesions begin with a careful history and physical examination of the affected individual We also found that axonal injury of the CST affected by stroke (as determined by decreased FA values in the pons) in the acute stage was only associated with PLIC damage. Although it seems logical that larger lesions would correlate with greater deficits, 33 we found no correlation between infarct volume and motor outcome at day 90 Medulla: This part is in the hindbrain, and it controls heartbeats, breathing, and other functions. During heavy drinking, these may slow or stop working altogether, endangering an individual's life. Neurons: These are the nerve cells. Alcohol can reach and enter these cells and damage, or even, at high enough levels, kill them The hippocampus is a part of the brain that plays a key role in memory and how knowledge is obtained. However, the healthy function of the hippocampus can be affected by Alzheimer's disease and.