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How are x rays produced in Chemistry

In 1895, a German Physicist, W. C. Röentgen, discovered X-Rays. He pointed, when high speed electrons are bombarded on a clean metal surface radiation of very short wavelength are emitted. X-rays are electromagnetic radiations of very short wave length and very high frequency X-ray is electromagnetic radiation similar to radio waves. It is produced by A current is passed through the tungsten filament and heats it up. Electrons are released from the filaments as it is heated u X-rays are produced by means of a cathode ray tube, which is similar to the tube of a television. Electrons are accelerated from a cathode at high speed towards a metal anode. As they hit the metal anode, they release energy. Over 95% of this energy is released as heat and less than 5% of the electrons' energy is converted into x-rays X Rays can be produced by conventional generators, by synchrotrons, and by plasma sources. occur at the same energies as X rays, but γ radiation is differentiated from X ray radiation by the fact that it originates from nuclear reactions

How are X-Rays produced? X-Rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to gamma radiation except X-Rays are produced when an electron is slowed down from a high velocity and gamma waves are produced from radioactive materials decaying. In an X-Ray machine, a filament wire heats up and releases electrons through the photoelectric effect There are three common mechanisms for the production of X-rays: the acceleration of a charged particle, atomic transitions between discrete energy levels, and the radioactive decay of some atomic nuclei. Each mechanism leads to a characteristic spectrum of X-ray radiation Visible light photons and X-ray photons are both produced by the movement of electrons in atoms. Electrons occupy different energy levels, or orbitals, around an atom's nucleus. When an electron drops to a lower orbital, it needs to release some energy -- it releases the extra energy in the form of a photon X-ray scans can diagnose possibly life-threatening conditions such as blocked blood vessels, bone cancer, and infections. However, x-rays produce ionizing radiation—a form of radiation that has the potential to harm living tissue. This is a risk that increases with the number of exposures added up over the life of the individual X rays are produced in a more energetic version of the same process. If you want to make X rays, you simply fire a beam of really high-energy electrons (accelerated using a high-voltage electricity supply) at a piece of metal (typically tungsten). What gets reflected back, in this case, is neither light nor electrons but a beam of X rays

How X-rays are produced X-rays Discovery Properties, Uses

X-rays are a kind of electromagnetic radiation. This is typically produced within a vacuum tube where a high voltage excites the electrons released by a hot cathode. This radiation has enough energy to shift electrons from atoms to produce observable ions. When X-rays strike an object, some X-rays will be absorbed and some reflected, depending. X rays are relatively high-frequency EM radiation. They are produced by transitions between inner-shell electron levels, which produce x rays characteristic of the atomic element, or by accelerating electrons. X rays have many uses, including medical diagnostics and x-ray diffraction X-rays were found to be able to penetrate through materials of light atoms like flesh. The heavier atoms like metal absorb them. A beam of high energy electrons crashes into a metal target and x-rays are produced. A filter near the x-ray source blocks the low energy rays so only the high energy rays pass through a patient toward a sheet of film X-rays are commonly produced by accelerating (or decelerating) charged particles; examples include a beam of electrons striking a metal plate in an X-ray tube and a circulating beam of electrons in a synchrotron particle accelerator or storage ring.In addition, highly excited atoms can emit X-rays with discrete wavelengths characteristic of the energy level spacings in the atoms

General Chemistry (11th Edition) Edit edition. Problem 87QP from Chapter 8: Explain how X rays are produced when an electron beam falls Get solution X-rays are generated in a cathode ray tube by heating a filament to produce electrons, accelerating the electrons toward a target by applying a voltage, and bombarding the target material with electrons. When electrons have sufficient energy to dislodge inner shell electrons of the target material, characteristic X-ray spectra are produced

The x-ray photons are released in a beam with a range of energies (x-ray spectrum) out of the window of the tube and form the basis for x-ray image formation Accelerated electrons are used to produce x-radiation in an x-ray tube, which is a vacuum tube with a hot cathode and a metal target. Protons or other positive ions may also be used. For example, proton-induced x-ray emission is an analytical technique (1%) of their kinetic energy into x-ray photons by the formation of bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation. A. BREMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATION Bremsstrahlung interactions, the primary source of x-ray photons from an x-ray tube, are produced by the sudden stopping, breaking or slowing of high-speed electrons at the target About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators. In a normal X-ray machine, X-rays are produced by bombarding cathode rays on a radioactive material. When a high speed cathode ray falls on a radioactive material, there is an emission of electrons and energy. This energy is used in the X-ray machine. Name the term used for describing the dental X-ray

What are X Ray's and how are they produced? - Physics Q&

  1. For a given source of electrons, a continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung will be produced up to the maximum energy of the electrons. X-rays are produced whenever fast moving electrons are decelerated, not just in x-ray tubes. Nearly all the naturally occurring x-ray sources are extraterrestrial
  2. Like all electromagnetic radiation, X-rays are made of photons. X-ray photons are produced when electrons in the outermost shells of an atom drop to the inner shells. (Hydrogen atoms do not emit X-rays, because the electron energy levels are too closely spaced together to permit the emission of high-frequency radiation.
  3. X-Rays X-Rays are produced by bombarding a metal target by high energy electrons. It is very important diagnostic tool. X-Rays have lesser wavelengths as compared to all other waves
  4. An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10 picometers to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (30 × 10 15 Hz to 30 × 10 18 Hz) and energies in the range 124 eV to 124 keV.X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and.
  5. BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014). X-ray spectroscopy is a tool that detects and analyses photons with wavelengths in the X-ray section of the electromagnetic spectrum or particles of light. It is used to help scientists understand an object's chemical and elemental properties. Many distinct X-ray spectroscopy techniques are used in science and technology, including archaeology, astronomy, and.
  6. Gamma Ray is a results from nuclear transition of nucleons and fusion or fusion of nucleons. Gamma Ray energy ranges fron few kilos Ev to megas Ev so basically Gamma Ray energy range overlap with that of X Ray energy range. Electron can produce ga..

X-Ray Generation Notes - OU Chemical Crystallography

How are X-Rays produced? MyTuto

  1. X-Rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to gamma radiation except X-Rays are produced when an electron is slowed down from a high velocity and gamma waves are produced from radioactive materials decaying. In an X-Ray machine, a filament wire heats up and releases electrons through the photoelectric effect
  2. X Rays are produced in labs by directing an energetic beam of particles or radiation, at a target material. The energetic beam can be electrons, protons, or other X rays. X Rays for crystallographic studies are typically generated by bombarding a metal target with an energetic beam of electrons
  3. Textbook solution for General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course 11th Edition Steven D. Gammon Chapter 8 Problem 8.87QP. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts
  4. The first way x-rays are produced is the result of the collision between the traveling electrons from the Cathode and the electrons in the glass atoms. shattering the chemical bonds that hold.
  5. An X-Ray machine is made up of tube-like structure that consists of a cathode and an anode. The cathode, a filament, releases energy in the form of electrons when introduced with an electric current. These electrons are attracted to the Anode, a Tungsten disc, on the opposite end of the tube
  6. 1 Answer1. Active Oldest Votes. 1. X-rays are not emitted by protons. They are emitted by atomic electrons when they fall down from an upper orbit (or level) to another one near the nucleus. Of course the electrons have first to be excited (= sent to this highly excited level). But whatever the way of exciting the electron, the energy of the.
  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface-sensitive quantitative spectroscopic technique based on the photoelectric effect that can identify the elements that exist within a material (elemental composition) or are covering its surface, as well as their chemical state, and the overall electronic structure and density of the electronic states in the material

X-ray - Production and detection of X-rays Britannic

  1. Production of X-rays: When high energetic electrons strike a metallic target of high atomic weight and high melting point, X-rays are produced. In production of X-rays mechanical energy of electrons is converted with electromagneitic energy of X-rays. Uses: X-rays are used in medical diagnostics to detect fractures in bones, tuberculosis of lungs, presence of stone in gallbladder and kidney
  2. Using Cu Kα1/Kα2 Splitting and a Powder XRD System To Discuss X‑ray Generation N. Stojilovic†,‡,* †Department of Physics and Astronomy and ‡Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: When single crystals are probed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) systems, the peak widths are smaller an
  3. ed by the thickness of bone each X-ray beam (yellow arrow) intersects (assu

The energies of the characteristic X-rays produced are only very weakly dependent on the chemical structure in which the atom is bound, indicating that the non-bonding shells of atoms are the X-ray source. The resulting characteristic spectrum is superimposed on the continuum as shown in the graphs below Cathode rays produce a green fluorescence on glass surface. When cathode rays fall on certain metals like copper, X-rays are produced. X-rays are not deflected by any electrical or magnetic fields but they pass through the opaque material and are only stopped by solid objects like bones The experiment clearly demonstrates that highly localized charge produced by X-rays in matter, redistributes over many atomic sites in a surprisingly short time. biology and chemistry.' Current X-ray Technologies. Modern X-rays use an X-ray detector that is illuminated with a short X-ray pulse. X-rays are produced as a result of the interaction of tungsten nuclei within the tube anode with accelerated electrons. As a result of radiation, an X-ray beam is produced with a spectrum of X-ray energy that can be manipulated for. The interaction of X-rays with a solid is called X-ray diffraction. The most famous example using X-ray diffraction is the discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA. Figure \(\PageIndex{10}\): X-ray diffraction from the crystal of a protein (hen egg lysozyme) produced this interference pattern

Producing an x-ray beam 1. Electrons produced: thermionic emission A current is applied through the cathode filament, which heats up and releases electrons via thermionic emission. Production of X-rays - Radiology Cafe X-Ray Production •Radiation-producing devices produce X-rays by accelerating electrons through a X-rays are produced within the X-ray machine, also known as an X-ray tube. No external radioactive material is involved. Radiographers can change the current and voltage settings on the X-ray machine in order to manipulate the properties of the X-ray beam produced. Different X-ray beam spectra are applied to different body parts WAXS (Wide-angle X ray scattering): In X-ray crystallography, is the analysis of Bragg peaks scattered to wide angles, which are caused by sub-nanometer sized structure. It is used to determine the crystalline structure of the polymers. The diffraction pattern can be used to determine the chemical composition or phase of the films, and the size.

X-Ray Diffraction

How X-rays Work HowStuffWork

X-Ray Advancements. Refinements and advances in equipment design since 1920 have made X-rays much safer for patients and technicians. Today's films use chemicals that make them more sensitive to X-rays, so they require less time and less radiation to create an image. The most sensitive of these screens use rare-earth metals The Source. x-ray tubes provides a means for generating x-ray radiation in most analytical instruments. An evacuated tube houses a tungsten filament which acts as a cathode opposite to a much larger, water cooled anode made of copper with a metal plate on it

More importantly, X-rays have shorter wavelengths in the order of 0.1 nm (or 1 Å), which is similar to the size of atoms and the distance between covalent bonds. This allows X-rays to resolve the chemical and biological structures of molecules at an atomic level, which are otherwise invisible under the light microscope When LCLS-II, a superconducting X-ray laser that will run alongside LCLS, comes online, it will bump X-ray science to new heights. The beam will be an average of 10,000 times brighter and fire 8,000 times faster than the original, producing up to a million pulses per second and enabling further advancements in materials, physical, chemical and.

1895 X-Rays Are Discovered. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German physicist, who in November 1895, produced and detected electro-magnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as x-rays or Röntgen rays. In 1901 this achievement earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics. Röntgen called the radiation x-radiation to denote its unknown nature. This mysterious radiation had the ability to pass. [1,4] X-rays are produced when high energy electrons from the accelerator interact with high atomic number nuclei, such as atoms of tungsten or tantalum. In a process known as Bremsstrahlung, the deceleration of the electron when passing the nucleus results in the release of X-rays X-ray spectroscopy is a technique that detects and measures photons, or particles of light, that have wavelengths in the X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It's used to help scientists.

X-rays - nibib.nih.go

The X-Rays: X-rays are electromagnetic rays. which have a very short wavelength and a very high frequency as well as very high energy. The wavelength of x-rays is shorter than ultraviolet rays and. Micro-CT and X-ray films were observed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. In the experimental group, the new bone tissue grew along the pore of MC, and the defect site was occupied gradually by the MC. In the blank group, there were no obvious signs of healing, and no obvious changes in the shape of the defect ( Fig. 4.21 ) Gale Rhodes, in Crystallography Made Crystal Clear (Third Edition), 2006. Publisher Summary. X-ray crystallography is used to examine a sample that is in the crystalline state. Crystals of many proteins and other biomoleculars have been obtained and analyzed in the X-ray beam On November 8, 1895, physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923) becomes the first person to observe X-rays, a significant scientific advancement that woul When U-235 undergoes fission with thermal neutrons, it splits into two fragments, one set of lighter nuclei and the other set of heavier nuclei alongwith ~200 MeV energy. This energy, in the form of kinetic energy remains associated with the fragm..

The lenses of x-ray glasses are made out of cardboard. Cardboard is a type of paper made from cellulose fibers extracted from wood or recycled paper. There are several different grades of cardboard available, differing in their thickness and exterior coating X-rays are produced via two processes, through bremsstrahlung or through characteristic radiation. X-rays from characteristic radiation are produced when incident electrons hit one of the inner.

X-ray laser reveals ultrafast dance of liquid water

A brief review of the history of X-ray astronomy, what X-rays are, how they are produced in the cosmos, why X-ray telescopes must be in space, and why X-ray astronomy is such a hot field. Click one of the categories to jump down to that section. Chemistry and the Univers X-rays at the universities of Antwerp and Perugia, and at two synchrotrons (ESRF and DESY). I am not aware of a similarly big effort ever having been made for the chemistry of an oil painting, says Joris Dik, Professor at Delft Technical University. In the decisive step, two techniques were combined using a single X-ray If the energy is great enough, the electrons will emit X-rays. • X-rays produced by a synchrotron are brighter than the X-rays from a conventional X-ray machine in a hospital. • Synchrotron X-ray radiation can provide the intense and continuously tunable X- ray beams needed for XAS Radiation therapy uses high-energy particles or waves, such as x-rays, gamma rays, electron beams, or protons, to destroy or damage cancer cells. Your cells normally grow and divide to form new cells. But cancer cells grow and divide faster than most normal cells. Radiation works by making small breaks in the DNA inside cells

What are X rays? A simple introduction - Explain that Stuf

This animation depicts the probe before destroy imaging technique made possible by SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray laser. On the left, longer-duration X-rays produced by more conventional research facilities can destroy or damage samples as they pass through them, which can make it challenging to capture high-quality images before damage occurs Von Laue discovered that by shining X-rays through a copper sulfate crystal onto a photographic plate, diffraction spots that related to the crystalline structure of the sample were produced. Skip to Samples 3 This will help readers understand how X-rays can be 2.2 Meteoritical Society Sample Declaration 4 produced, detected, and the efficiency of extracting 3 X-ray Fluorescence Materials and Methods 4 XRF 'fingerprints' from samples in various set-ups, 3.1 X-ray Fluorescence Basics 4 with very different sensitivities The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) is a NASA mission which was launched in December 1995. Although RXTE does not have focusing X-ray mirrors, it has the unique capability to study rapid time variability in the emission of cosmic X-ray sources over a wide band of X-ray energies, and is expected to make valuable contributions to our understanding of neutron stars and black holes

By Rahul Rao May 04, 2021. Science. Powerful x-rays are helping scientists unravel the secrets of Chernobyl's melted uranium waste. Michał Lis/Unsplash. It's been three and a half decades since. The X Factor. In 1895, Dr. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was physicist on staff with the Institute of Physics at the University of Würzburg. Röntgen carried out experiments to study cathode rays (negatively-charged electrons) using various kinds of cathode tubes which were readily available at the time First, x-rays are made of plastic and silver materials which are highly considered recyclable. In fact, by recycling x-ray scan films, you can make some money when the silvers on the x-rays are extracted and sold. Also, x-rays contain private information about people's conditions, which, by all standards, must be treated with absolute privacy X-rays are produced when an incoming electron misses all the electrons in the tungsten atom, gets very close to the nucleus, and then suddenly slows down and abruptly changes direction. As a result, the electron loses energy. This sudden energy change is converted into an x-ray photon (Fig. 5-6)

Black hole X-ray binary GRS 1915+105 has a variable

X-rays are emitted from processes outside the nucleus, but gamma rays originate inside the nucleus. They also are generally lower in energy and, therefore less penetrating than gamma rays. X-rays can be produced naturally or by machines using electricity. Literally thousands of x-ray machines are used daily in medicine The X-ray pattern produced by the sample can be compared with the X-ray patterns for all known elements. Based on this comparison, the elements present in the unknown sample can be identified. A typical application of this technique is the analysis of hair or blood samples or some other material being used as evidence in a criminal investigation The exact way to produce a given quantity and quality of x-rays will be discussed later, when analyzing the x-ray tube and generators in detail. When the electrons impact the target—the anode—x-rays are produced in two main ways (figure 1.2) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), is a technique for analyzing the surface chemistry of a material. XPS can measure the elemental composition, empirical formula, chemical state and electronic state of the elements within a material. XPS spectra are obtained by irradiating a.

The Science Behind X-Ray Imaging - Informa Connec

The anode is the component of the x-ray tube where x-rays are produced. Molybdenum is also often used as the target material for anodes used in mammography because it has an intermediate atomic number (Z=42) and the produced characteristic x - rays are of energies suited for this purpose X-ray are a form of energy that can penetrate matter. X-rays belong to a group classified as electromagnetic radiation. Visible light, radar, raddio, and television are waves that are also classufued as electromagnetic radiation. The shorter the wavelength of the x-ray the great is its energy

How X-rays are produced| X-rays Discovery Properties, Uses and Types☺️ https://lnkd.in/dWYXG4f Shared by Digital Kemistry Join now to see all activit There are two different mechanisms by which x-rays are produced. One gives rise to bremsstrahlung x-rays and the other characteristic x-rays.; Ka refers to an electron transition from the L to the K shell, and K~refers to an electron transition from M, N, or 0 shell to K shell; For tungsten, an L-shell electron filling a K-shell vacancy results in a characteristic x-ray energy - X-rays produced within an x-ray tube form a heterogeneous beam, which means individual x-ray photons vary in the energy each possesses. Some weak, low energy x-rays (soft radiation) are produced and do not contribute to forming an x-ray image X-rays are emitted from processes outside the nucleus, but gamma rays originate inside the nucleus. They also are generally lower in energy and, therefore, less penetrating than gamma rays. X-rays can be produced naturally or artificially by machines using electricity. Literally thousands of x-ray machines are used daily in medicine. On June 7, 1877, British physicist Charles Glover Barkla was born. Barkla received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work in X-ray spectroscopy.In particular for his work on X-ray scattering.This technique is applied to the investigation of atomic structures, by studying how X-rays passing through a material and are deflected by the atomic electrons..

chemical reaction in the battery causes ionization to occur in the chemical substance and electrons are made to flow. This flow of electrons will continue as long as the work device is turned on or until the chemical undergoing the ionization is depleted. In radiology, a type of instability of matter is caused when x-rays are made to collid An XRF spectrometer works because if a sample is illuminated by an intense X-ray beam, known as the incident beam, some of the energy is scattered, but some is also absorbed within the sample in a manner that depends on its chemistry. The incident X-ray beam is typically produced from a Rh target, although W, Mo, Cr and others can also be used. X ray Diffraction Principle. X-ray diffraction is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays and a crystalline sample. These X-rays are generated by a cathode ray tube, filtered to produce monochromatic radiation, collimated to concentrate, and directed toward the sample

Increasing the kV results in increased energy of the X-rays produced and, therefore, the ability of the X-ray beam to penetrate the patient's tissues also increases. Focus-film distance (FFD) The focus-film distance is the distance between the X-ray source (generator) and the cassette or as it is commonly known, the 'plate' Waves. Electromagnetic Waves - What are X-rays?. Electromagnetic waves with a wavelength shorter than ultraviolet light are called X-rays (not X waves). X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum.. How are X-rays used for Medical Photographs?. X-rays can pass easily through flesh but not through bone. X-ray photographs are used to show the image of bones against a black background X-Rays and Gamma Rays . X-rays and Gamma Rays are high frequency electromagnetic radiation:. Energy and Ionization . Gamma rays, X-rays, and some ultraviolet waves have such high energy that they are ionizing, meaning they can knock electrons out of atoms.. This makes atoms charged and more likely to form new chemical reactions, which can be harmful to our cells, killing them or changing them. Bremsstrahlung: The X-rays or braking radiation produced by the deceleration of electrons, namely in an X-ray tube. Characteristic X-rays: X-rays emitted from electrons during electron shell transfers The cathode is shaped to focus the electrons onto a small portion of the target, which increases the intensity of the x-rays produced. The target is, typically, a piece of tungsten or molybdenum, which may be embedded in a stationary water or oil coiled rod, or on a rotating disk

X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications Physic

Because the wavelengths of X-rays (10-10,000 picometers [pm]) are comparable to the size of atoms, X-rays can be used to determine the structure of molecules. When a beam of X-rays is passed through molecules packed together in a crystal, the X-rays collide with the electrons and scatter The density of this material on the atomic scale is then measured by using x-ray diffraction techniques to determine the number of atoms per unit cell in the crystal and the distance between the.

How do x-rays work? - Concordia Colleg

X-rays affect the processes of life, since living cells are largely made of water. Hence Fricke, after moving to the Cold Spring Harbor Biological Laboratory in 1928, set out on a program of study of the chemical properties of activated water For the first time, researchers have produced a coherent, laser-like, directed beam of light that simultaneously streams ultraviolet light, X-rays, and all wavelengths in between. One of the few.

Where as gamma radiation is one of the products of nuclear decay of radioactive elements, X-rays are produced in high voltage electron tubes. You will recall from the history section that W.C. Roentgen discovered X-rays in the late 1800's while working with a cathode tube in his lab Scientists using synchrotron X-rays have identified the chemical reaction in two van Gogh paintings that alters originally bright yellow colors into brown shades. Scientists have identified a. These properties make x rays very useful for medical diagnosis and treatment as the doctors can identify the symptoms of the disease in the patient's body. X rays are made up of two sides called the anode and the cathode. The cathode, which is occurs in the negative end has a filament to it x-ray interaction is doubled: The radiographic image results from approximately: 1% of the x-rays: x-ray incident on the patient that reach the film: Less than 5%: The positron combines with another electron and energy is produced: annihilation radiation: X-ray photon goes close to the nuclear field of the an atom and disappears: PAIR PRODUCTIO

Introduction to Electronic Structure and PeriodicVery High Energy Gamma RaysGamma ray optics: A viable tool for a new branch of

X-rays can also be used to produce images of the internal structure of the body, helping doctors to determine whether bones are broken or fractured. a chemical containing the rays is injected. In this sense, the main difference between X-rays and gamma rays is that gamma rays are produced during nuclear decay by nuclei of atoms, whereas X-rays are produced by electrons. For instance, for medical purposes, X-rays are produced by accelerating some electrons and then making them collide with a metal target One of the key things about using X-rays is that they're quite specific, tuned to distinct energies. So we can study, in this case, what the magnetization dynamics are for individual chemical elements, Higley said. And the short pulses produced by an X-ray laser allow you to take a snapshot of things that happen very fast X-ray spectroscopy is a technique that detects and measures photons, or particles of light, that have wavelengths in the X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. There are several different X-ray spectroscopy methods that are used in many disciplines of science and technology, including archaeology, astronomy and engineering. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, a German physicist, was awarded the. They have an x-ray safe box that they use to produce a live x-ray image on a fluorescent screen. In this article, we describe the apparatus, provide an overview of how x-rays are produced, and explain the strategies the Berkeley team used to ensure that this demonstration is safe for everyone involved